In a molecular screen for cDNAs that encode protamine RNA-binding proteins, we obtained seven independent clones that encode Tenr, a testis nuclear RNA-binding protein. Tenr is a 72-kDa protein that has one copy of a previously described RNAbinding domain. Northwestern blotting experiments showed that a maltose-binding protein-Tenr fusion binds to a variety of RNAs in vitro and that it does not bind to single-stranded or double-stranded DNA. The Tenr gene is transcribed exclusively in the testis, and its mRNA is restricted to cells from the pachytene spermatocyte stage through the round spermatid stage. Immunolocalization of the Tenr protein within the testis showed that it is first detected postmeiotically, demonstrating that the Tenr mRNA is under translational control. The Tenr protein is localized to round and early elongating spermatid cells, and confocal microscopy revealed a lattice-like nuclear distribution suggesting association with the nuclear scaffold. We suggest that the Tenr protein may be involved in testis-specific nuclear posttranscriptional processes such as heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) packaging, alternative splicing, or nuclear/cytoplasmic transport of mRNAs.