RISK FACTORS The effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes: a systematic review


Results Twenty-four studies were eligible for this review. Based on the available evidence, waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly associated with lung cancer [odds ratio (OR)1⁄4 2.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–3.42], respiratory illness (OR1⁄4 2.3; 95% CI 1.1–5.1), low birth-weight (OR1⁄4 2.12; 95% CI 1.08–4.18) and periodontal disease (OR1⁄4… (More)


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Citations per Year

Citation Velocity: 8

Averaging 8 citations per year over the last 3 years.

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