# REVISITING THE MODIFIED EDDINGTON LIMIT FOR MASSIVE STARS

@article{Ulmer1997REVISITINGTM,
title={REVISITING THE MODIFIED EDDINGTON LIMIT FOR MASSIVE STARS},
author={Andrew Ulmer and Edward L. Fitzpatrick},
journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
year={1997},
volume={504},
pages={200-206}
}
• Published 28 August 1997
• Physics
• The Astrophysical Journal
We have determined the location of the line-opacity modified Eddington limit for stars in the LMC using the most recent atmosphere models combined with a precise mapping to the H-R diagram through up-to-date stellar evolution calculations. While we find, in agreement with previous studies, that the shape of the modified Eddington limit qualitatively corresponds to the Humphreys-Davidson (HD) limit defined by the most luminous supergiants, the modified limit is actually a full magnitude higher…

## Figures from this paper

Massive main sequence stars evolving at the Eddington limit
• Physics
• 2015
The evolution of massive stars even on the main sequence is not yet well understood. Due to the steep mass-luminosity relation, massive main sequence stars become very luminous. This brings their
The excess of cool supergiants from contemporary stellar evolution models defies the metallicity-independent Humphreys–Davidson limit
• A. Gilkis, +5 authors H. Sana
• Physics
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
• 2021
The Humphreys–Davidson (HD) limit empirically defines a region of high luminosities (log10(L/L⊙) ≳ 5.5) and low effective temperatures ($T_{\rm eff} \lesssim 20 \, {\rm kK}$) on the
Mass transfer on a nuclear timescale in models of supergiant and ultra-luminous X-ray binaries
• Physics
Astronomy & Astrophysics
• 2019
Context. The origin and number of the Galactic supergiant X-ray binaries is currently not well understood. They consist of an evolved massive star and a neutron star or black-hole companion. X-rays
Wolf-Rayet stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud as testbed for massive star evolution
• Physics
• 2017
The majority of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars represent the stripped cores of evolved massive stars who lost most of their hydrogen envelope. In low metallicity environments, such as the Small Magellanic
On the Gaia DR2 distances for Galactic luminous blue variables
• Physics
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
• 2019
We examine parallaxes and distances for Galactic luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Gaia second data release (DR2). The sample includes 11 LBVs and 14 LBV candidates. For about half of the
The origin of subdwarf B stars – I. The formation channels
• Physics
• 2002
Subdwarf B (sdB) stars (and related sdO/sdOB stars) are believed to be helium-core-burning objects with very thin hydrogen-rich envelopes. In recent years it has become increasingly clear from
R4 and its circumstellar nebula: Evidence for a binary merger?
• Physics
• 2000
We present new, NTT long-slit spectroscopy of the B[e] supergiant in the binary system R4 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. The data show extended, forbidden N and S emissions, which are typical
The Complex Upper HR Diagram
Several decades of observations of the most massive and most luminous stars have revealed a complex upper HR Diagram, shaped by mass loss, and inhabited by a variety of evolved stars exhibiting the
Very massive stars occasionally expel material in colossal eruptions, driven by continuum radiation pressure rather than blast waves. Some of them rival supernovae in total radiative output, and the
Presupernova Evolution of Massive Single and Binary Stars
Understanding massive stars is essential for a variety of branches of astronomy including galaxy and star cluster evolution, nucleosynthesis and supernovae, pulsars, and black holes. It has become

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES
The relationship between the Eddington limit, the observed upper luminosity limit for massive stars, and the luminous blue variables
• Physics
• 1988
The observed upper luminosity limits in the Galaxy and the LMC are compared with the Eddington limit as estimated for plane-parallel LTE model atmospheres which include the full effects of metal line
The H-R diagram of the Large Magellanic Cloud and implications for stellar evolution
• Physics
• 1990
An H-R diagram for the Large Magellanic Cloud is produced using a sample of 1375 normal spectral class O through G supergiants. The definition of normal includes all O stars that fit into the
The stability of massive stars and its dependence on metallicity and opacity
• Physics
• 1993
Following a similar investigation based on the of LAOL opacities, the stability of massive stars is re-examined using the latest available OPAL opacity tables. Two groups of dynamical strange-mode
Studies of luminous stars in nearby galaxies. III. Comments on the evolution of the most massive stars in the Milky Way and the large magellanic cloud
• Physics
• 1979
An empirical comparison of the observed H-R diagrams for the supergiants in our region of the Galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud reveals comparable distributions of spectral types and luminosities
The Luminous Blue Variables: Astrophysical Geysers
• Physics
• 1994
Some of the most luminous stars have sporadic, violent mass-loss events whose cuases are not understood. These evolved hot stars are called Luminous Blue Variables (LBV's), and their instability may
Abundance gradients in M31: Comparison of results from supernova remnants and H II regions
• Physics
• 1982
We have obtained spectra of 11 H II regions and additional spectra of six previously reported supernova remnants (SNRs) in M31. The SNR spectra have been used in conjunction with shock model
Stellar winds from hot supergiants.
Spectrographic data of high dispersion are described from 65 very luminous galactic OB stars. Their absolute magnitudes and masses are estimated. Almost all show evidence for mass outflow, and the
The Most Luminous Stars
• Physics, Medicine
Science
• 1984
Stars with individual luminosities more than a million times that of the sun are now being studied in a variety of contexts, and theoretical scenarios for the evolution of these most massive stars depend on the effects of turbulence and mixing combined with high radition densities.
The H-R Diagrams of The LMC and SMC
• Physics
• 1989
We present new determinations of the H-R diagrams for luminous, hot stars in the LMC and the SMC. Using all available photometric and spectroscopic data, we discuss the conversion of the observed
Instabilities in evolved super- and hypergiants
• Physics
• 1992
Observations of A through M-Type Super- and Hypergiants and Related Groups of Stars Interpretation of the Data (12 papers). Super- and Hypergiant Masers and Related Phenomena in Extreme Red Objects