REVIEW: Small Bowel Review: Normal Physiology, Part 1

@article{Thomson2004REVIEWSB,
  title={REVIEW: Small Bowel Review: Normal Physiology, Part 1},
  author={Alan B. R. Thomson and Laurie A. Drozdowski and Claudiu Iordache and Ben K.A. Thomson and S{\'e}verine Vermeire and Michael Tom Clandinin and Gary Wild},
  journal={Digestive Diseases and Sciences},
  year={2004},
  volume={48},
  pages={1546-1564}
}
In the past year there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology and therapy. In preparation for this review, over 1500 papers were assessed. The focus is on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist. Selected important clinical learning points include the following: (1) glucose absorption mediated by SGLT1 is controlled by mRNA abundance, as well as by posttranscriptional processes including protein trafficking; (2… Expand
Gene expression in the adapting small bowel after massive small bowel resection
TLDR
DD-PCR analysis showed regulation of a number of genes not previously known to be involved in adaptation after MSBR or previously characterized in the intestine that may be important in bringing about the complement of changes seen during the adaptive response. Expand
Patients with chronic kidney disease have abnormal upper gastro‐intestinal tract digestive function: A study of uremic enteropathy
TLDR
This present study was designed to comprehensively describe upper GI function in those with advanced renal impairment. Expand
The role of enteral fat as a modulator of body composition after small bowel resection.
TLDR
It is suggested that enteral fat enriched in omega-3 fatty acids may offer clinically relevant metabolic advantages for patients with short gut syndrome. Expand
Digestion and absorption
Summary Improved understanding of gastrointestinal tract physiology has led to major progress in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. For example, the development of oral rehydration therapyExpand
Omega-3 fatty acids in immune-enhancing enteral diets selectively increase blood flow to the ileum by a bile acid dependent mechanism.
TLDR
Omega-3 fatty acids are the components of the enteral IED, Impact, which produce the increased blood flow to the terminal ileum and its contiguous gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and this data suggests that an intact enterohepatic bile pathway is needed for the IED blood flow effect. Expand
The human jejunum has an endogenous microbiota that differs from those in the oral cavity and colon
TLDR
The jejunal lumen contains a distinctive bacterial population consisting primarily of facultative anaerobes and oxygen-tolerant obligates similar to those found in the oral cavity, however, the frequent abundance of Enterobacteriaceae represents a major difference from oral microbiota. Expand
Carbohydrate supplementation: a critical review of recent innovations
TLDR
Novel carbohydrate supplements including multiple transportable carbohydrate, modified carbohydrate, and hydrogels (HGEL) have been generally effective at modifying gastric emptying and/or intestinal absorption, but how this affects the ergogenicity of carbohydrate is still mostly unknown. Expand
Iron metabolism in end stage renal failure: rationale for re-evaluation of parenteral iron therapy
TLDR
Although parenteral iron achieves seemingly favourable short results, there are no data for its safety in the long term and there are reasons to suggest possible iron overload with chronic use. Expand
Eusorbents and Eusorption: A Review of Physiological Events to Therapeutic Concepts
TLDR
The eusorption paradigm in the optimization of oral rehydration and the treatment of diarrhea is reviewed to contribute to the understanding of absorptive enhancements of specific substances and their properties that facilitate the desired effects in health and disease. Expand
Fecal stream is essential for adaptive induction of glucose-coupled sodium transport in the remnant ileum after total proctocolectomy
TLDR
Comparative studies of proximal and distal mucosae demonstrated that in addition to hormonal changes, fecal stream is required for full induction of the sodium transport system (which includes SGLT-1-mediated transport) in the remnant ileum following total proctocolectomy. Expand
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References

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In vivo measurement of intestinal absorption using 3-0 methylglucose in short bowel syndrome.
TLDR
Results show that 3-0 MG is useful in measuring nutrient absorption capacity in rats after massive small bowel resection, and further studies to validate these methods in human patients with short bowel syndrome are suggested. Expand
Glutamine ameliorates mechanical obstruction-induced intestinal injury.
TLDR
It is shown that glutamine can significantly reduce the degree of those physiological derangements induced by mechanical intestinal obstruction and the obstruction-induced mucosal injury was substantially improved in glutamine-fed rats. Expand
Cisplatin impairs fluid and electrolyte absorption in rat small intestine: a role for 5-hydroxytryptamine
TLDR
The findings suggest that diarrhoea during cisplatin therapy may be due to altered fluid transport in the small bowel, and the reversal of fluid transport to normal in the presence of a 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist suggests that 5-Hydroxytiptamine is a local mediator in theSmall intestine. Expand
Hepatocyte growth factor up-regulates SGLT1 and GLUT5 gene expression after massive small bowel resection.
TLDR
Data, demonstrating that HGF upregulates intestine epithelial glucose transporter gene expression after massive small bowel resection, may elucidate a mechanism of action for the enhanced carbohydrate absorption after HGF administration. Expand
Effect of intravenous ranitidine and omeprazole on intestinal absorption of water, sodium, and macronutrients in patients with intestinal resection
TLDR
The effect varied significantly and was greater in patients with a high output, but did not allow parenteral nutrition to be discontinued, and absorption of energy, macronutrients, electrolytes, and divalent cations was not improved. Expand
Effect of lactitol on blood ammonia response to oral glutamine challenge in cirrhotic patients: evidence for an effect of nonabsorbable disaccharides on small intestine ammonia generation
TLDR
It is suggested that lactitol affects small intestine ammonia generation probably by shortening the residence time of intestinal contents by reducing the elevation in blood ammonia that follows oral glutamine challenge. Expand
Intestinal bile acid transport: biology, physiology, and pathophysiology.
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TLDR
Future studies of the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the ASBT gene and analysis of ASBT knockout mice will provide further insight into the biology, physiology, and pathophysiology of intestinal bile acid transport. Expand
Modification of small bowel mechanosensitivity by intestinal fat
TLDR
Physiological amounts of lipids heighten intestinal sensitivity by modulating intestinal mechanoreceptor response by exerting pressure on gut afferents through lipids. Expand
Effect of sorbin on electrolyte transport in rat and human intestine.
TLDR
The results indicate that C7-sorbin stimulated NaCl neutral absorption and inhibited electrogenic Cl- in rat and human intestinal epithelia and inhibited secretory agents such as secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, PGE2, and serotonin in rats and humans. Expand
Contribution of villous atrophy to reduced intestinal maltase in infants with malnutrition.
TLDR
The data directly demonstrate, for the first time, that the terminal steps of starch 1-4 starch digestion and sucrase-isomaltase 1-6 starch digestion are decreased in malnourished infants, secondary to villous atrophy. Expand
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