There are currently a number of planned development projects that threaten environmental assets in the Northeast Asian region, especially between Korea and China. To solve those problems, both countries initiated environmental impact assessment (EIA) systems in the 1980s. However, the actual supporting policies and legislative actions were finally developed in recent years. Korea’s EIA Act was enacted in 1993 and then replaced by the Integrated Impact Assessment Act in 1999, and China adopted its independent law of EIAs in 2002 and enacted it in 2003. This study deals with the EIA systems in the two countries, focusing on golf course development, by comparing the differences and similarities between them in the following aspects: preparation of environmental impact statements (EISs), review process, approval procedure, and EIS contents. The aim of the study is to obtain a better understanding of the EIA systems in Korea and China, and to promote cooperation between the two countries related to any future potential environmental problems. The results show that EIA procedures and EIS contents in the two countries are relatively different. Specifically, although there are some limitations on technical analysis and survey experience in China, its EIA system is somewhat more advanced in legislative terms, requiring more advanced measures, such as screening and scoping. On the other hand, Korea’s legislation contains more specific and concrete requirements, a compulsory supplement system, and technical methods of surveying. However, Korea needs to reform its system to make the application of the law more flexible and reasonable. This paper not only proposes that the two EIA systems can be improved by adopting each other’s good points, but also provides some policy suggestions to improve each country’s EIA system.