REM sleep and dreaming: towards a theory of protoconsciousness

  title={REM sleep and dreaming: towards a theory of protoconsciousness},
  author={J. Allan Hobson},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
  • J. Hobson
  • Published 1 November 2009
  • Psychology, Biology
  • Nature Reviews Neuroscience
Dreaming has fascinated and mystified humankind for ages: the bizarre and evanescent qualities of dreams have invited boundless speculation about their origin, meaning and purpose. For most of the twentieth century, scientific dream theories were mainly psychological. Since the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the neural underpinnings of dreaming have become increasingly well understood, and it is now possible to complement the details of these brain mechanisms with a theory of… 

Dreams and the temporality of consciousness.

It is argued that dreaming is a unique state of consciousness that incorporates 3 temporal dimensions: experience of the present, processing of the past, and preparation for the future.

Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology

Lucid dreaming: discontinuity or continuity in consciousness?

The notions of continuity and discontinuity are discussed in relation to the phenomenon of lucid dreaming (awareness of dreaming while dreaming). Lucid dreams seem to be more dreamlike than non-lucid

Dreaming Is Imaginative Play in Sleep: A Theory of the Function of Dreams

This article presents evidence in support of the theory that dreaming is imaginative play in sleep. Both play and dreaming are innate behaviors of our species that have the adaptive,

Ego Ergo Sum

Abstract Modern sleep and dream science not only fails to support the central tenets of Freudian dream theory but raises serious questions about other strongly held psychodynamic assumptions

Exploring the neural correlates of dream phenomenology and altered states of consciousness during sleep

To what extent individuals dream during periods of rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep, and how dreaming during different stages of sleep varies in terms of phenomenological characteristics is discussed.

How Does the Theory and Data Discussed in the Lectures Fit with Your Work on Dreams

The protoconsciousness theory of dreaming, recently proposed by J. Allan Hobson (2009), provides a timely synthesis of dream related findings that are otherwise scattered across various disciplines

Waking and dreaming consciousness: Neurobiological and functional considerations

Theories of dreaming and lucid dreaming: An integrative review towards sleep, dreaming and consciousness

An overview on common theories of dreaming with a specific emphasis on how they are able to explain lucid dreaming shows that none of the theories outlined is fully capable of explaining neither non-lucid dreaming nor lucid dreaming.

Investigating consciousness in the sleep laboratory – an interdisciplinary perspective on lucid dreaming

ABSTRACT During dreaming, we experience a wake-like hallucinatory reality, however with restricted reflective abilities: in the face of a bizarre dream environment, we do not realize that we are



Dreaming and the brain: Toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states

A three-dimensional model with specific examples from normally and abnormally changing conscious states of REM sleep dreaming is presented, suggesting that there are isomorphisms between the phenomenology and the physiology of dreams.

Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming.

The data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas.

Dreaming souls: Sleep, dreams, and the evolution of the conscious mind: Book review.

What, if anything do dreams tell us about ourselves? What is the relationship between types of sleep and types of dreams? Does dreaming serve any purpose? Or are dreams simply meaningless mental

The single-mindedness and isolation of dreams.

This isolation of dream content, from other thought systems is considered as but one manifestation of a more generalized relative isolation ofdream content, which includes isolation from presleep stimuli, contemporaneous stimuli, organismic state, and autonomic and motor activity.

Dreaming Souls. Sleep, Dreams, and the Evolution of the Conscious Mind

Who or what dreams the dream? Does the brain dream the dream, or is it the mind? While I realize that this way of postulating such a question is hopelessly Cartesian, passe, and simply not very

Lucid Dreaming: Psychophysiological Studies of Consciousness during REM Sleep

Although we are usually not explicitly aware that we are dreaming while we are dreaming, at times a remarkable exception occurs, and we become conscious enough to realize that fact. “Lucid” dreamers

The brain as a dream state generator: an activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process.

The authors suggest that the automatically activated forebrain synthesizes the dream by comparing information generated in specific brain stem circuits with information stored in memory.

Dreaming and REM sleep are controlled by different brain mechanisms

  • M. Solms
  • Psychology, Biology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 2000
These findings suggest that the fore brain mechanism in question is the final common path to dreaming and that the brainstem oscillator that controls the REM state is just one of the many arousal triggers that can activate this forebrain mechanism.

Dreaming and Episodic Memory: A Functional Dissociation?

While 65 of a total of 299 sleep mentation reports were judged to reflect aspects of recent waking life experiences, the episodic replay of waking events was found in no more than 12 of the dream reports, consistent with evidence that sleep has no role in episodic memory consolidation.

Of dreaming and wakefulness