author={Jason A. Dunlop and O. ERIK TETLIE and Lorenzo Prendini},
Abstract:  The morphology of the Late Silurian (Přídolí) scorpion Proscorpius osborni ( Whitfield, 1885a ) (Arachnida: Scorpiones), from the Phelps Member of the Fiddlers Green Formation of New York, the ‘Bertie Waterlime’ of earlier stratigraphic schemes, is revised based on studies of new and existing material (a total of 32 specimens). Previous reports of four cheliceral articles, gnathobasic coxae, a labium and gill slits in P. osborni can be dismissed. However, we confirm the presence of… 
Redescription and palaeobiology of Palaeoscorpius devonicus Lehmann, 1944 from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate of Germany
Abstract:  Palaeoscorpius devonicus Lehmann, 1944 is known from only a single specimen, found in the Eschenbach Pit near Bundenbach in the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate of Germany. It is a key
The Lower Devonian scorpionWaeringoscorpio and the respiratory nature of its filamentous structures, with the description of a new species from the Westerwald area, Germany
The fossil scorpionWaeringoscorpio hefteriStørmer, 1970 (Arachnida: Scorpiones) from the Lower Devonian of the Rhenish Massif of Germany is redescribed based on both the original type and newly
Carboniferous arachnids from the Graissessac Basin, Central Massif, France
Trigonotarbids and scorpions (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida, Scorpiones) are described from the Upper Carboniferous (Late Stephanian/Late Gzehlian) of the Graissessac Basin in the Central Massif
Exploring the evolution and terrestrialization of scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones) with rocks and clocks
The results reveal a window of divergence from 335 to 266 Mya for the scorpion crown group, consistent with a Pangean origin of crown scorpions inferred from the biogeographical distribution of the extant fauna.
A taxonomic revision of orthosternous scorpions from the english coal measures aided by x-ray micro-tomography (XMT)
Fossil scorpion systematics – particularly that of the diverse assemblage found in Carboniferous Coal Measure deposits – are problematic, being characterised by a large number of frequently monotypic
Geological history and phylogeny of Chelicerata.
  • J. Dunlop
  • Geology, Biology
    Arthropod structure & development
  • 2010
The Earliest Record of Terrestrial Animals in Gondwana: A Scorpion from the Famennian (Late Devonian) Witpoort Formation of South Africa
  • R. Gess
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2013
The new genus and species, Gondwanascorpio emzantsiensis, are described on the basis of fragments from the Famennian (Late Devonian) Waterloo Farm locality near Grahamstown, Eastern Cape, South Africa, providing the first evidence of Palaeozoic scorpions from Gondwana.
Babes in the wood – a unique window into sea scorpion ontogeny
The ontogenetic development of the genital appendage supports the hypothesis that the structure is homologous to the endopods of the trunk limbs of other arthropods, and certain characteristics including apparent true direct development suggest a closer affinity to arachnids.
A new mid-Silurian aquatic scorpion—one step closer to land?
It is postulate that these animals were aquatic, but occasionally ventured into extremely shallow water, or onto a transient subaerially exposed surface while moulting, before returning to deeper water.
Scorpion Fragments from the Silurian of Powys, Wales
Summary Fragments of a fossil scorpion collected from Silurian (Ludfordian, c. 420 Ma) strata near Trecastle in Powys, Wales, are described. They represent one of the oldest records of Scorpiones, of


The first Silurian chasmataspid, Loganamaraspis dunlopi gen. et sp. nov. (Chelicerata: Chasmataspidida) from Lesmahagow, Scotland, and its implications for eurypterid phylogeny
A new chasmataspid is described from the Early Silurian of Lesmahagow, Scotland, as Loganamaraspis dunlopi gen. et sp.
A synopsis of the family Pterygotidae Clarke and Ruedemann, 1912 (Eurypterida)
The Pterygotidae comprise two genera, Pterygotus Agassiz and Erettopterus Salter, and four subgenera. Possible species and subspecies are: 37 for P. (Pterygotus), 7 for P. (Acutiramus), 17 for E.
Silurian scorpions of New York
It is concluded that early scorpions lived in the same habitat as eurypterids, namely, in shallow water that was hypersaline to brackish and in shallow epeiric seas, enclosed marine bays, lagoons, and estuaries.
Functional morphology of the prosoma of Baltoeurypterus tetragonophthalmus (Fischer) (Chelicerata: Eurypterida)
The limb arrangement and joint mechanisms of Baltoeurypterus are intermediate between those of the xiphosurans and the arachnids, and it is possible that a sister relationship exists between the eurypterids and someArachnid groups, which would render Merostomata and Arachnida unnatural assemblages.
Phylogeny and Classification of the Superfamily Scorpionoidea Latreille 1802 (Chelicerata, Scorpiones): An Exemplar Approach
A re‐investigation of scorpionoid phylogeny is presented here, based on 115 morphological characters and 71 exemplar species, and revisions are proposed to the existing suprageneric classification of the Scorpionoidea, including new diagnoses, new descriptions, and an illustrated key to the families and subfamilies.
Palaeophysiology of terrestrialisation in the Chelicerata
New and well-preserved material of the earliest demonstrably terrestrial scorpions from the Lower Carboniferous suggests that book-lungs developed directly from book-gills by suturing of the covering plate to leave stigmata for diffusion of air, supporting the ideas of early authors that the scorpion mesosomal ‘sternites’ are fused plates.
XIII. Notes on the Discovery of a Fossil Scorpion (Palæophonus Caledonicus) in the Silurian Strata of Logan Water
  • J. Hunter
  • Geology
    Transactions of the Glasgow Geological Society
  • 1886
In two previous papers read to the Society* I referred to the results of former expeditions to the Logan Water district in the Lesmahagow hills, and I then described the geological features of this
Skeletomuscular anatomy of the harvestman Leiobunum aldrichi (Weed, 1893) (Arachnida: Opiliones: Palpatores) and its evolutionary significance
Skeleton muscles of the North American harvestman Leiobunum aldrichi are exhaustively surveyed and compared with other chelicerates to clarify the evolutionary morphology and phylogenetic relationships of arachnids and reveal several possible synapomorphies between Opiliones and Scorpiones suggesting that these orders may be sister groups.
XIX.— On a Silurian Scorpion and some additional Eurypterid Remains from the Pentland Hills
In 1892 I communicated to this Society an account of a collection of Eurypterids from the Upper Silurian rocks of the Pentland Hills, in which I described new species and a new genus. Since that time