REDUCED COTTONWOOD RECRUITMENT FOLLOWING EXTIRPATION OF WOLVES IN YELLOWSTONE'S NORTHERN RANGE

@article{Beschta2005REDUCEDCR,
  title={REDUCED COTTONWOOD RECRUITMENT FOLLOWING EXTIRPATION OF WOLVES IN YELLOWSTONE'S NORTHERN RANGE},
  author={R. Beschta},
  journal={Ecology},
  year={2005},
  volume={86},
  pages={391-403}
}
Cottonwoods (Populus spp.) represent an important tree component of riparian plant communities within the winter range of the northern Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, yet young cottonwoods are highly palatable to ungulates. To assess potential herbivory impacts associated with wild ungulates following the removal of gray wolves (Canis lupus), long-term cottonwood recruitment and stand dynamics were studied. While results indicated that the establishment of young cottonwoods is an ongoing… Expand

Figures from this paper

Divergent patterns of riparian cottonwood recovery after the return of wolves in Yellowstone, USA
Understanding the potential effect apex predators may have on riparian plant communities, via a trophic cascade, represents an important research challenge in Rocky Mountain ecosystems. In theExpand
Recovering Riparian Plant Communities with Wolves in Northern Yellowstone, U.S.A.
Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were extirpated from Yellowstone National Park in the 1920s. The ensuing seven decades marked a period when wild ungulates, principally Elk (Cervus elaphus), extensivelyExpand
Riparian vegetation recovery in Yellowstone: The first two decades after wolf reintroduction
TLDR
Although the long-term warming and drying trends underway in northern Yellowstone appear unlikely to have contributed to the occurrence of improved riparian plant communities during the last two decades, these vegetation changes were consistent with reestablishment of a tri-trophic cascade involving an intact large predator guild, elk, and woody plant species. Expand
Effects of bison on willow and cottonwood in northern Yellowstone National Park
TLDR
Plants were increasing in size except where intensively browsed by bison, suggesting that a release from elk browsing has occurred, and that a trophic cascade is occurring from wolves to plants, mediated by both elk and bison. Expand
The influence of floods and herbivory on cottonwood establishment and growth in Yellowstone National Park
Ecohydrol. 2017; 10: e1768; DOI 10.1002/eco.1768 Abstract Herbivory by ungulates can shape the structure and function of riparian forests. However, our understanding of the interactions betweenExpand
Understory physical structures reduce browsing damage to palatable shrubs in a dry conifer forest, western North America
High densities of cattle (Bos taurus) and wild ungulates (Rocky Mountain elk, Cervus canadensis; mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) have impacted the abundance and population dynamics of palatable woodyExpand
Hardwood tree decline following large carnivore loss on the Great Plains, USA
In order to investigate long-term food web linkages and trophic cascades, we conducted a retrospective analysis of large carnivores, wild and domestic ungulates, human settlement, and hardwood treesExpand
Effects of Elk and Bison Herbivory on Narrowleaf Cottonwood
Abstract. Ungulate browsing influences the structure and composition of woody plant communities, including species composition and biomass production as well as age distribution, recruitment, andExpand
Berry-producing shrub characteristics following wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park
TLDR
After multiple decades of browsing suppression by elk, it appears that aspen and at least some genera/species of berry-producing shrubs are in the early stages of recovery. Expand
Trophic Cascades and Historic Aspen Recruitment in the Gallatin Elk Winter Range of Southwest Montana
The extirpation of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) by 1930 in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provided us with an opportunity to study historic aspen (Populus tremuloides ) recruitment with and without aExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES
Ungulate herbivory of willows on Yellowstone's northern winter range
TLDR
It is proposed a more xeric climate and locally-reduced water tables likely contributed to the willow declines on the northern winter range, but that the proximate factor in the declines was herbivory by native ungulates. Expand
Aspen, Elk, and Fire in Northern Yellowstone Park
Most stands of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) in northern Yellow- stone National Park appear to have become established between 1870 and 1890, with little regeneration since 1900. There hasExpand
COTTONWOODS, ELK, AND WOLVES IN THE LAMAR VALLEY OF YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK
In September 2001, the diameter at breast height (dbh) of all cottonwood (Populus spp.) $5 cm in diameter was measured within a 9.5-km 2 section of the Lamar Valley (elevation ;2000 m), inExpand
Historic aspen recruitment, elk, and wolves in northern Yellowstone National Park, USA
TLDR
Aspen overstory recruitment ceased during the same years that wolves, a significant source of elk predation, were removed from YNP, finding that a main factor is YNP’s loss of significant predator/prey relationships in the early 1900s. Expand
Ecophysiology of riparian cottonwoods: stream flow dependency, water relations and restoration.
TLDR
When alluvial groundwater is depleted as a result of river dewatering or groundwater pumping, riparian cottonwoods exhibit drought-stress responses including stomatal closure and reduced transpiration and photosynthesis, altered 13C composition, reduced predawn and midday water potentials, and xylem cavitation. Expand
Wolf reintroduction, predation risk, and cottonwood recovery in Yellowstone National Park
Abstract We studied young riparian cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and associated woody plants along Soda Butte Creek and the Lamar River in northeastern Yellowstone National Park (YNP) to examine theExpand
Long-term aspen exclosures in the Yellowstone ecosystem
  • C. Kay
  • Environmental Science
  • 2001
Aspen has been declining in the Yellowstone Ecosystem for more than 80 years. Some authors have suggested that aspen is a marginal plant community in Yellowstone and that recent climatic variationExpand
Aspen age structure in the northern Yellowstone ecosystem: USA
Abstract Age-structure analysis of aspen (Populus tremuloides) was conducted on Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range in the northern Yellowstone area by collecting increment cores fromExpand
Viewpoint: ungulate herbivory, willows, and political ecology in Yellowstone.
Contentions that willows (Salix spp.) on Yellowstone National Park's northern range have declined because of climatic change, fire suppression, reduced chemical defenses, or other natural factors areExpand
Wolves and the Ecology of Fear: Can Predation Risk Structure Ecosystems?
TLDR
It is indicated that predation risk may have profound effects on the structure of ecosystems and is an important constituent of native biodiversity. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...