author={Philip Massey and D. R. Silva and Emily M. Levesque and Bertrand Plez and Knut A. G. Olsen and Geoffrey C. Clayton and Georges Meynet and Andre Maeder},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  pages={420 - 440}
Red supergiants (RSGs) are a short-lived stage in the evolution of moderately massive stars (10–25 M☉), and as such their location in the H-R diagram provides an exacting test of stellar evolutionary models. Since massive star evolution is strongly affected by the amount of mass loss a star suffers, and since the mass-loss rates depend upon metallicity, it is highly desirable to study the physical properties of these stars in galaxies of various metallicities. Here we identify a sample of RSGs… 

The Physical Properties of Red Supergiants


The yellow supergiant content of nearby galaxies can provide a critical test of stellar evolution theory, bridging the gap between the hot, massive stars and the cool red supergiants. But, this

The Red Supergiant Content of M31 and M33

We identify red supergiants (RSGs) in our spiral neighbors M31 and M33 using near-IR (NIR) photometry complete to a luminosity limit of . Our archival survey data cover 5 deg2 of M31, and 3 deg2 for

Red Supergiants in the Local Group

Galaxies in the Local Group span a factor of 15 in metallicity, ranging from the super-solar M31 to the Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM) galaxy, which is the lowest-metallicity (0.1xZsun) Local Group

Variability of Red Supergiants in M31 from the Palomar Transient Factory

Most massive stars end their lives as red supergiants (RSGs), a short-lived evolutionary phase when they are known to pulsate with varying amplitudes. The RSG period–luminosity (PL) relation has been

The red supergiants and Wolf-Rayet stars of NGC 604

We study the post-main-sequence stars in NGC 604, the most luminous H II region in M33. A number of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars and one red supergiant (RSG) were discovered earlier. Based on the broad-band

The Luminosity Function of Red Supergiants in M31

The mass-loss rates of red supergiant stars (RSGs) are poorly constrained by direct measurements, and yet the subsequent evolution of these stars depends critically on how much mass is lost during

The Red Supergiant Binary Fraction of the Large Magellanic Cloud

The binary fraction of unevolved massive stars is thought to be 70%–100% but there are few observational constraints on the binary fraction of the evolved version of a subset of these stars, the red

Red Supergiants in M31 and M33. I. The Complete Sample

The aim of this paper is to establish a complete sample of red supergiants (RSGs) in M31 and M33. The member stars of the two galaxies are selected from the near-infrared (NIR) point sources after

The luminosities of cool supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds, and the Humphreys-Davidson limit revisited

The empirical upper luminosity boundary Lmax of cool supergiants (SGs), often referred to as the Humphreys-Davidson limit, is thought to encode information on the general mass-loss behaviour of




The yellow supergiant content of nearby galaxies can provide a critical test of stellar evolution theory, bridging the gap between the hot, massive stars and the cool red supergiants. But, this

The Evolution of Massive Stars. I. Red Supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds

We investigate the red supergiant (RSG) content of the SMC and LMC using multiobject spectroscopy on a sample of red stars previously identified by BVR CCD photometry. We obtained high-accuracy (<1

Late-Type Red Supergiants: Too Cool for the Magellanic Clouds?

We have identified seven red supergiants (RSGs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and four RSGs in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), all of which have spectral types that are considerably later


WOH G64 is an unusual red supergiant (RSG) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), with a number of properties that set it apart from the rest of the LMC RSG population, including a thick circumstellar

The Effective Temperatures and Physical Properties of Magellanic Cloud Red Supergiants: The Effects of Metallicity

We present moderate-resolution spectrophotometry of 36 red supergiants (RSGs) in the LMC and 37 RSGs in the SMC. Using the MARCS atmosphere models to fit this spectrophotometry, we determine the

Evolved Massive Stars in the Local Group. I. Identification of Red Supergiants in NGC 6822, M31, and M33

Knowledge of the red supergiant (RSG) population of nearby galaxies allows us to probe massive star evolution as a function of metallicity; however, contamination by foreground Galactic dwarfs

The red supergiants in M31 - Spectra, colors, and luminosities

M31 has been surveyed for its most luminous red stars; 300 candidates were found distributed across the face of the galaxy. JHK infrared photometry was observed for 57 of the candidates, and far-red

The Reddening of Red Supergiants: When Smoke Gets in Your Eyes

Deriving the physical properties of red supergiants (RSGs) depends on accurate corrections for reddening by dust. We use our recent modeling of the optical spectra of RSGs to address this topic.

Analysis of Four A-F Supergiants in M31 from Keck HIRES Spectroscopy

The first stellar abundances in M31 are presented, based on Keck I HIRES spectroscopy and model atmospheres analyses of three A-F supergiants, 41-2368, 41-3712, and A-207. We also present the

HV 11423: The Coolest Supergiant in the SMC

We call attention to the fact that one of the brightest red supergiants in the SMC has recently changed its spectral type from K0-1 I (2004 December) to M4 I (2005 December) and back to K0-1 I (2006