R U There? Ostracism by Cell Phone Text Messages.

  title={R U There? Ostracism by Cell Phone Text Messages.},
  author={Anita Smith and Kipling D. Williams},
  journal={Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice},
Ostracism has a powerful negative effect on individuals. Face-to-face (i.e., social) ostracism is not necessary for these effects to emerge; they occur also in Internet ball toss games and within chat rooms. In previous research, ostracized individuals observed the interaction between other members of a group. In this experiment, the authors tested whether imagined ostracism is sufficient to inflict psychological pain. They used a triadic cell phone text-messaging method such that after initial… 

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