R (−)-ketamine shows greater potency and longer lasting antidepressant effects than S (+)-ketamine

@article{Zhang2014R,
  title={
 R (−)-ketamine shows greater potency and longer lasting antidepressant effects than S (+)-ketamine},
  author={Ji-chun Zhang and Su-Xia Li and Kenji Hashimoto},
  journal={Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior},
  year={2014},
  volume={116},
  pages={137-141}
}
Antidepressant Potential of (R)-Ketamine in Rodent Models: Comparison with (S)-Ketamine
TLDR
This study is the first to demonstrate that (R)-ketamine exerted a sustained antidepressant effect even in a model that is refractory to currently prescribed antidepressants, and confirmed the previous findings that ( R)-ketamines exerted longer-lasting antidepressant effects than (S-ketamine in animal models of depression.
Antidepressant Actions of Ketamine and Its Two Enantiomers
TLDR
Recent findings on the antidepressant actions of two enantiomers of ketamine are discussed, including (R,S), which has been reported to have a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effects than (S)-ketamine in rodent models of depression.
No Sex-Specific Differences in the Acute Antidepressant Actions of (R)-Ketamine in an Inflammation Model
TLDR
These findings showed no sex-specific differences in terms of the acute antidepressant effects and pharmacokinetic profile of (R)-ketamine.
Ketamine: A tale of two enantiomers
TLDR
Underlying mechanisms including N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor antagonism, γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic interneuron inhibition, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor activation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin kinase B signalling, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling are considered.
Comparison of R-ketamine and rapastinel antidepressant effects in the social defeat stress model of depression
TLDR
R-ketamine is highlighted as a longer lasting antidepressant compared with rapastinel in social defeat stress model and it is likely that synaptogenesis including BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus may be required for the mechanisms promoting this sustained antidepressant effect.
5-Hydroxytryptamine-Independent Antidepressant Actions of (R)-Ketamine in a Chronic Social Defeat Stress Model
TLDR
Findings show that 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion did not affect the antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine in a chronic social defeat stress model, and it is unlikely that 5,hydroxyTryptamine plays a major role in the antidepressant actions of ( R)-ketamines.
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