In Vivo Study of Transepithelial Potential Difference (TEPD) in Proximal Convoluted Tubules of Rat Kidney by Synchronization Modulation Electric Field
Blood vessel dilation starts from activation of the Na/K pumps and inward rectifier K channels in the vessel smooth muscle cells, which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane potential and closes the Ca channels. As a result, the intracellular Ca concentration reduces, and the smooth muscle cells relax and the blood vessel dilates. Activation of the Na/K pumps and the membrane potential hyperpolarization plays a critical role in blood vessel functions. Previously, we developed a new technique, synchronization modulation, to control the pump functions by electrically entraining the pump molecules. We have applied the synchronization modulation electric field noninvasively to various intact cells and demonstrated the field-induced membrane potential hyperpolarization. We further applied the electric field to blood vessels and investigated the field induced functional changes of the vessels. In this paper, we report the results in a study of the membrane potential change in the smooth muscle cells of mesenteric blood vessels in response to the oscillating electric field. We found that the synchronization modulation electric field can effectively hyperpolarize the muscle membrane potential quickly in seconds under physiological conditions.