Endocrine Disruptors, Nutraceuticals and their Simultaneous Effects in Hormone-Sensitive Tissues: A Review
- Alzbeta Bujnakova
Quercetin has been reported to protect testicular cells from oxidative damage induced by environmental chemicals. In this study, we isolated interstitial Leydig cells (ILCs) from immature rats, set-up ILCs culture, co-treated cells with atrazine (ATZ) and quercetin (QT), evaluated toxicity, and measured the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and levels of steroidogenic enzymes. ATZ decreased ILCs viability at concentrations higher than 10 μg/mL and increased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione levels. ATZ also increased glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase and decreased superoxide dismutase-1 (sod1) and superoxide dismutase-2 (sod2) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels which were prevented by QT. The changes in the MDA levels and lactate dehydrogenase leakage induced by ATZ (50 μg/mL) were also prevented on co-treatment with QT (50 μM). Furthermore, ATZ-induced 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities and NF-κB-expressions at the mRNA and protein levels were also recovered to control value on co-treatment with QT. These data showed that QT protected against ATZ-induced ILCs toxicity by restoring the expression of NF-κB and steroidogenic activity and by preventing the oxidative stress.