# Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor

@article{Arute2019QuantumSU, title={Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor}, author={F. Arute and K. Arya and R. Babbush and D. Bacon and J. Bardin and R. Barends and R. Biswas and S. Boixo and F. Brand{\~a}o and D. Buell and B. Burkett and Y. Chen and Zijun Chen and B. Chiaro and R. Collins and W. Courtney and A. Dunsworth and E. Farhi and B. Foxen and A. Fowler and C. Gidney and M. Giustina and R. Graff and Keith Guerin and Steve Habegger and M. Harrigan and M. Hartmann and A. Ho and M. Hoffmann and Trent Huang and T. Humble and S. Isakov and E. Jeffrey and Zhang Jiang and D. Kafri and K. Kechedzhi and J. Kelly and P. Klimov and S. Knysh and A. Korotkov and F. Kostritsa and D. Landhuis and Mike Lindmark and E. Lucero and Dmitry I. Lyakh and Salvatore Mandr{\`a} and J. McClean and M. McEwen and A. Megrant and X. Mi and K. Michielsen and M. Mohseni and J. Mutus and O. Naaman and M. Neeley and C. Neill and M. Niu and E. Ostby and A. Petukhov and John C. Platt and C. Quintana and E. Rieffel and P. Roushan and N. Rubin and D. Sank and K. Satzinger and V. Smelyanskiy and Kevin J. Sung and M. Trevithick and A. Vainsencher and B. Villalonga and T. White and Z. Yao and P. Yeh and Adam Zalcman and H. Neven and J. Martinis}, journal={Nature}, year={2019}, volume={574}, pages={505-510} }

The promise of quantum computers is that certain computational tasks might be executed exponentially faster on a quantum processor than on a classical processor1. A fundamental challenge is to build a high-fidelity processor capable of running quantum algorithms in an exponentially large computational space. Here we report the use of a processor with programmable superconducting qubits2–7 to create quantum states on 53 qubits, corresponding to a computational state-space of dimension 253 (about… Expand

#### Supplemental Presentations

#### Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper

#### Paper Mentions

#### 1,887 Citations

Programmable quantum processor implemented with superconducting circuit

- Physics
- 2021

A quantum processor might execute certain computational tasks exponentially faster than a classical processor. Here, using superconducting quantum circuits we design a powerful universal quantum… Expand

Advanced quantum supremacy using a hybrid algorithm for linear systems of equations

- Computer Science
- 2020

A wealth of quantum algorithms developed during the past decades brought about the concept of quantum supremacy. The state-of-the-art noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices, although… Expand

How many qubits are needed for quantum computational supremacy?

- Computer Science, Physics
- Quantum
- 2020

It is concluded that Instantaneous Quantum Polynomial-Time (IQP), Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) circuits with 420 qubits and boson sampling circuits with 98 photons are large enough for the task of producing samples from their output distributions up to constant multiplicative error to be intractable on current technology. Expand

An Algebraic Quantum Circuit Compression Algorithm for Hamiltonian Simulation

- Mathematics, Computer Science
- ArXiv
- 2021

It is shown that Hamiltonian simulation of certain spin models known as free fermions can be performed in a quantum circuit with a depth that is independent of simulation time and that grows linearly in the number of spins. Expand

Classical Simulation of Quantum Supremacy Circuits

- Computer Science, Physics
- 2020

It is shown that achieving quantum supremacy may require a period of continuing quantum hardware developments without an unequivocal first demonstration, and an orders-of-magnitude reduction in classical simulation time is indicated. Expand

Control for Programmable Superconducting Quantum Systems

- Computer Science
- 2020

This thesis focuses on the control aspects of building an extensible full-stack quantum computer based on superconducting transmon qubits, and presents a novel tuneup protocol that achieves a tenfold speedup over the state-of-the-art. Expand

A quantum-computing advantage for chemistry

- Medicine
- Science
- 2020

An experimental implementation of Hartree-Fock calculations of molecular electronic energies on a superconducting processor demonstrates many of the key building blocks for quantum chemistry simulation and paves the way toward achieving quantum advantage for problems of chemical interest. Expand

Quantum Algorithm Implementations for Beginners

- Computer Science, Physics
- ArXiv
- 2018

This review aims to explain the principles of quantum programming, which are quite different from classical programming, with straightforward algebra that makes understanding of the underlying fascinating quantum mechanical principles optional. Expand

A Universal Quantum Circuit Design for Periodical Functions

- Physics
- 2021

We propose a universal quantum circuit design that can estimate any arbitrary one-dimensional periodic functions based on the corresponding Fourier expansion. The quantum circuit contains Nqubits to… Expand

Establishing the Quantum Supremacy Frontier with a 281 Pflop/s Simulation

- Computer Science, Physics
- ArXiv
- 2019

HPC simulations of hard random quantum circuits (RQC), which have been recently used as a benchmark for the first experimental demonstration of Quantum Supremacy, sustaining an average performance of 281 Pflop/s on Summit, currently the fastest supercomputer in the World, are reported. Expand

#### References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 133 REFERENCES

Demonstration of two-qubit algorithms with a superconducting quantum processor

- Physics, Medicine
- Nature
- 2009

A two-qubit superconducting processor and the implementation of the Grover search and Deutsch–Jozsa quantum algorithms are demonstrated and the generation of highly entangled states with concurrence up to 94 per cent is allowed. Expand

How many qubits are needed for quantum computational supremacy?

- Computer Science, Physics
- Quantum
- 2020

It is concluded that Instantaneous Quantum Polynomial-Time (IQP), Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) circuits with 420 qubits and boson sampling circuits with 98 photons are large enough for the task of producing samples from their output distributions up to constant multiplicative error to be intractable on current technology. Expand

Characterizing quantum supremacy in near-term devices

- Mathematics, Physics
- 2016

A critical question for quantum computing in the near future is whether quantum devices without error correction can perform a well-defined computational task beyond the capabilities of… Expand

A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits

- Physics, Medicine
- Science
- 2018

Nine superconducting qubits are used to demonstrate a promising path toward quantum supremacy and the scaling of errors and output with the number of qubits is explored in a five- to nine-qubit device. Expand

Massively parallel quantum computer simulator, eleven years later

- Computer Science, Physics
- Comput. Phys. Commun.
- 2019

A revised version of the massively parallel simulator of a universal quantum computer, described in this journal eleven years ago, is used to benchmark various gate-based quantum algorithms on some… Expand

Breaking the 49-Qubit Barrier in the Simulation of Quantum Circuits

- Physics, Mathematics
- 2017

With the current rate of progress in quantum computing technologies, systems with more than 50 qubits will soon become reality. Computing ideal quantum state amplitudes for devices of such and larger… Expand

Establishing the Quantum Supremacy Frontier with a 281 Pflop/s Simulation

- Computer Science, Physics
- ArXiv
- 2019

HPC simulations of hard random quantum circuits (RQC), which have been recently used as a benchmark for the first experimental demonstration of Quantum Supremacy, sustaining an average performance of 281 Pflop/s on Summit, currently the fastest supercomputer in the World, are reported. Expand

Quantum Supremacy Is Both Closer and Farther than It Appears

- Mathematics, Physics
- ArXiv
- 2018

A massively-parallel simulation tool Rollright is developed that does not require inter-process communication (IPC) or proprietary hardware, and two ways to trade circuit fidelity for computational speedups are developed, so as to match the fidelity of a given quantum computer --- a task previously thought impossible. Expand

Can Chaotic Quantum Circuits Maintain Quantum Supremacy under Noise

- Mathematics, Physics
- 2017

Although the emergence of a fully-functional quantum computer may still be far away from today, in the near future, it is possible to have medium-size, special-purpose, quantum devices that can… Expand

A path towards quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits

- Computer Science
- 2017

This thesis designs superconducting qubits and algorithms and presents experimental techniques for characterizing the complexity and fidelity of these algorithms and shows that quantum supremacy is achievable using existing technology. Expand