Quantum spin-Hall effect and topologically invariant Chern numbers.

@article{Sheng2006QuantumSE,
  title={Quantum spin-Hall effect and topologically invariant Chern numbers.},
  author={Donna N. Sheng and Zheng-yu Weng and Li Sheng and F. D. M. Haldane},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2006},
  volume={97 3},
  pages={
          036808
        }
}
We present a topological description of the quantum spin-Hall effect (QSHE) in a two-dimensional electron system on a honeycomb lattice with both intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit couplings. We show that the topology of the band insulator can be characterized by a 2 x 2 matrix of first Chern integers. The nontrivial QSHE phase is identified by the nonzero diagonal matrix elements of the Chern number matrix (CNM). A spin Chern number is derived from the CNM, which is conserved in the presence of… 

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