# Quantum spin-Hall effect and topologically invariant Chern numbers.

@article{Sheng2006QuantumSE, title={Quantum spin-Hall effect and topologically invariant Chern numbers.}, author={Donna N. Sheng and Zheng-yu Weng and Li Sheng and F. D. M. Haldane}, journal={Physical review letters}, year={2006}, volume={97 3}, pages={ 036808 } }

We present a topological description of the quantum spin-Hall effect (QSHE) in a two-dimensional electron system on a honeycomb lattice with both intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit couplings. We show that the topology of the band insulator can be characterized by a 2 x 2 matrix of first Chern integers. The nontrivial QSHE phase is identified by the nonzero diagonal matrix elements of the Chern number matrix (CNM). A spin Chern number is derived from the CNM, which is conserved in the presence of…

## 350 Citations

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Abstract
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uniform exchange…

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