Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms

@article{Greiner2002QuantumPT,
  title={Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms},
  author={Markus Greiner and Olaf Mandel and Tilman Esslinger and Theodor W. H{\"a}nsch and Immanuel Bloch},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2002},
  volume={415},
  pages={39-44}
}
For a system at a temperature of absolute zero, all thermal fluctuations are frozen out, while quantum fluctuations prevail. These microscopic quantum fluctuations can induce a macroscopic phase transition in the ground state of a many-body system when the relative strength of two competing energy terms is varied across a critical value. Here we observe such a quantum phase transition in a Bose–Einstein condensate with repulsive interactions, held in a three-dimensional optical lattice… Expand

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