Quantum Theory and Beyond: Is Entanglement Special?

@article{Daki2009QuantumTA,
  title={Quantum Theory and Beyond: Is Entanglement Special?},
  author={Borivoje Daki{\'c} and {\vC}aslav Brukner},
  journal={arXiv: Quantum Physics},
  year={2009}
}
Quantum theory makes the most accurate empirical predictions and yet it lacks simple, comprehensible physical principles from which the theory can be uniquely derived. A broad class of probabilistic theories exist which all share some features with quantum theory, such as probabilistic predictions for individual outcomes (indeterminism), the impossibility of information transfer faster than speed of light (no-signaling) or the impossibility of copying of unknown states (no-cloning). A vast… 

Figures from this paper

Information-Theoretic Postulates for Quantum Theory
Why are the laws of physics formulated in terms of complex Hilbert spaces? Are there natural and consistent modifications of quantum theory that could be tested experimentally? This book chapter
Computational Complexity and the Nature of Quantum Mechanics (Extended version)
TLDR
It is shown that the computation postulate is the only true divide between QT, seen as a generalised theory of probability, and classical probability.
Computational Complexity and the Nature of Quantum Mechanics
TLDR
It is shown that the computation postulate is the only true divide between QT, seen as a generalised theory of probability, and classical probability.
Perspectives on the Formalism of Quantum Theory
Quantum theory has the distinction among physical theories of currently underpinning most of modern physics, while remaining essentially mysterious, with no general agreement about the nature of its
Generalized probability theories: what determines the structure of quantum theory?
TLDR
It turns out that non-classical features of single systems can equivalently result from higher-dimensional classical theories that have been restricted, and entanglement and non-locality are shown to be genuine non- classical features.
Existence of an information unit as a postulate of quantum theory
TLDR
It is proved that quantum theory can be formulated through four very simple postulates, each having a direct physical and intuitive meaning, and this constitutes a set of postulates for quantum theory with a simple and direct physical meaning, like the ones of special relativity or thermodynamics.
Information Content of Elementary Systems as a Physical Principle
TLDR
An elementary system information content principle (ICP) whose basic ingredient is the phenomenon of Heisenberg uncertainty that states that the amount of non-redundant information which may be extracted from a given system is bounded by a perfectly decodable information content of the system.
Information content of systems as a physical principle
TLDR
An information content principle (ICP) is introduced which represents the new - constrained uncertainty principle and is capable of separation both classicality and quanta from a number of potential physical theories including hidden variable theories.
Bell's Inequalities - Foundations and Quantum Communication
TLDR
This chapter aims at establishing connections between certain quantum information protocols and foundational issues in quantum theory by demonstrating how quantum contextuality and violations of local realism can be used as useful resources in quantum information applications.
Deriving the Qubit from Entropy Principles
TLDR
This work proposes three physically-based axioms which together characterize the simplest quantum system, namely the qubit, and takes two important features of quantum mechanics and turn them into deliberately chosen physical axiomatic.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 72 REFERENCES
Philosophy of Quantum Information and Entanglement: Probabilistic theories: What is special about Quantum Mechanics?
Quantum Mechanics (QM) is a very special probabilistic theory, yet we don't know which operational principles make it so. All axiomatization attempts suffer at least one postulate of a mathematical
Evidence for the epistemic view of quantum states: A toy theory
We present a toy theory that is based on a simple principle: the number of questions about the physical state of a system that are answered must always be equal to the number that are unanswered in a
Quantum Mechanics as Quantum Information (and only a little more)
In this paper, I try once again to cause some good-natured trouble. The issue remains, when will we ever stop burdening the taxpayer with conferences devoted to the quantum foundations? The suspicion
Nonlocal Hidden-Variable Theories and Quantum Mechanics: An Incompatibility Theorem
It is argued that among possible nonlocal hidden-variable theories a particular class (called here “crypto-nonlocal” or CN) is relatively plausible on physical grounds. CN theories have the property
Relational quantum mechanics
I suggest that the common unease with taking quantum mechanics as a fundamental description of nature (the “measurement problem”) could derive from the use of an incorrect notion, as the unease with
A Foundational Principle for Quantum Mechanics
In contrast to the theories of relativity, quantum mechanics is not yet based on a generally accepted conceptual foundation. It is proposed here that the missing principle may be identified through
Information-geometric reconstruction of quantum theory
In this paper and a companion paper, we show how the framework of information geometry, a geometry of discrete probability distributions, can form the basis of a derivation of the quantum formalism.
Information Invariance and Quantum Probabilities
We consider probabilistic theories in which the most elementary system, a two-dimensional system, contains one bit of information. The bit is assumed to be contained in any complete set of mutually
Quantum Theory From Five Reasonable Axioms
The usual formulation of quantum theory is based on rather obscure axioms (employing complex Hilbert spaces, Hermitean operators, and the trace formula for calculating probabilities). In this paper
Information and Fundamental Elements of the Structure of Quantum Theory
According to Aage Petersen Niels Bohr liked to say: “There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract quantum physical description. It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out
...
...