Quantum Phase Transitions

Abstract

whereM is a real, symmetric, positive-definite matrix (i.e. all eigenvalues are positive). This identity can be easily established by changing variables of integration to a basis in which M is diagonal. We will use this identity to compute the free energy density F , defined by Z = exp(−V F ) where V is the volume of spacetime. In the paramagnetic phase, r… (More)
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