Quantum One-Time Memories from Stateless Hardware

@article{Broadbent2015QuantumOM,
  title={Quantum One-Time Memories from Stateless Hardware},
  author={Anne Broadbent and Sevag Gharibian and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  journal={ArXiv},
  year={2015},
  volume={abs/1511.01363}
}
A central tenet of theoretical cryptography is the study of the minimal assumptions required to implement a given cryptographic primitive. One such primitive is the one-time memory (OTM), introduced by Goldwasser, Kalai, and Rothblum [CRYPTO 2008], which is a classical functionality modeled after a non-interactive 1-out-of-2 oblivious transfer, and which is complete for one-time classical and quantum programs. It is known that secure OTMs do not exist in the standard model in both the classical… 

Figures from this paper

Towards Quantum One-Time Memories from Stateless Hardware
TLDR
This work proposes a scheme for using quantum information, together with the assumption of stateless (i.e., reusable) hardware tokens, to build statistically secure OTMs, and proves security for a malicious receiver, against a linear number of adaptive queries to the token, in the quantum universal composability framework.
Cryptography with Disposable Backdoors
TLDR
It is shown that it is possible for Apple to create a one-time backdoor which unlocks any single device, and not even Apple can use it to unlock more than one, i.e., the backdoor becomes useless after it is used.
Cryptography with Dispensable Backdoors
TLDR
It is shown that it is possible for Apple to create a one-time backdoor which unlocks any single device, and no more than one, i.e., the backdoor becomes useless after it is used, and a resolution to the most prominent recent legislative push in favor of backdooring cryptography is proposed.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 72 REFERENCES
Building one-time memories from isolated qubits: (extended abstract)
TLDR
A new model based on isolated qubits - qubits that can only be accessed using local operations and classical communication (LOCC) is proposed, which combines a quantum resource (single-qubit measurements) with a classical restriction (on communication between qubits), and can be implemented using current technologies, such as nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond.
Unforgeable noise-tolerant quantum tokens
TLDR
A novel class of secure “quantum money”-type primitives capable of tolerating realistic infidelities is proposed and demonstrated and their rigorous security is proved by determining tight fidelity thresholds.
Founding Cryptography on Tamper-Proof Hardware Tokens
TLDR
It is shown that stateless hardware tokens are sufficient to base general secure computation on the existence of one-way functions, and gives the first general feasibility result for program obfuscation using stateless tokens, while strengthening the standard notion of obfuscation by providing security against a malicious sender.
Cryptography in the bounded quantum-storage model
TLDR
It is shown that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory, whereas an adversarial player needs quantum memory of size at least n/2 in order to break the protocol, where n is the number of qubits transmitted.
Improving the Security of Quantum Protocols via Commit-and-Open
TLDR
A general "compiler" improving the security of two-party quantum protocols is shown: if the original protocol is secure against an "almost honest" adversary, then the compiled protocol isSecure against an arbitrary computationally bounded (quantum) adversary.
Quantum money from hidden subspaces
TLDR
The first quantum money scheme that is (1) public-key---meaning that anyone can verify a banknote as genuine, not only the bank that printed it, and (2) cryptographically secure, under a "classical" hardness assumption that has nothing to do with quantum money is proposed.
New Constructions for UC Secure Computation Using Tamper-Proof Hardware
TLDR
New constructions for UC secure computation using tamper proof hardware (in a stronger model) are presented, which represent an improvement over the results of Katz in several directions using substantially different techniques.
Practical Quantum Oblivious Transfer
We describe a protocol for quantum oblivious transfer, utilizing faint pulses of polarized light, by which one of two mutually distrustful parties ("Alice") transmits two one-bit messages in such a
Cryptography from noisy storage.
We show how to implement cryptographic primitives based on the realistic assumption that quantum storage of qubits is noisy. We thereby consider individual-storage attacks; i.e., the dishonest party
Classical Cryptographic Protocols in a Quantum World
TLDR
The result shows that the basic two-party feasibility picture from classical cryptography remains unchanged in a quantum world, and shows the existence of classical two- party protocols for the secure evaluation of any polynomial-time function under reasonable computational assumptions.
...
...