Quantized electric multipole insulators

@article{Benalcazar2017QuantizedEM,
  title={Quantized electric multipole insulators},
  author={Wladimir A Benalcazar and Bogdan Andrei Bernevig and Taylor L Hughes},
  journal={Science},
  year={2017},
  volume={357},
  pages={61-66}
}
The Berry phase provides a modern formulation of electric polarization in crystals. We extend this concept to higher electric multipole moments and determine the necessary conditions and minimal models for which the quadrupole and octupole moments are topologically quantized electromagnetic observables. Such systems exhibit gapped boundaries that are themselves lower-dimensional topological phases. Furthermore, they host topologically protected corner states carrying fractional charge… CONTINUE READING

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