Over the past decade, quality measures (QMs) have been implemented nationally in order to establish standards aimed at improving the quality of care. With the expansion of their role in the Affordable Care Act and pay-for-performance, QMs have had an increasingly significant impact on clinical practice. However, adverse patient outcomes have resulted from adherence to some previously promulgated performance measures. Several of these QMs with unintended consequences, including the initiation of perioperative beta-blockers in noncardiac surgery and intensive insulin therapy for critically ill patients, were instituted as QMs years before large randomized trials ultimately refuted their use. The future of quality care should emphasize the importance of evidence-based, peer-reviewed measures.