Quantitative Analysis of Penalty Kicks and Yellow Card Referee Decisions in Soccer

  title={Quantitative Analysis of Penalty Kicks and Yellow Card Referee Decisions in Soccer},
  author={Jimmy Tanamati Soares and Lior Shamir},
  journal={American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine},
Soccer referees are required to make instant decisions during the game under non-optimal conditions such as imperfect view of the incident and substantial pressure from the crowd, the teams, and the media. Some of the decisions can be subjective, such as a yellow card decision after a foul is called, where different referees might make different decisions. Here we perform quantitative analysis of factors related to the reputation of the team such as the team’s rank, budget, and crowd attendance… 

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