We describe the implementation and validation of a combined dynamic-autoradiographic approach for measuring the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 15O-butanol. From arterial blood data sampled at a rate of 1 s and list mode data of the cerebral radioactivity accumulated over 100 s, the time shift between blood and tissue curves, the dispersion constant DC, the partition coefficient p, and the CBF were estimated by least squares fitting. Using the fit results, a pixel-by-pixel parametrization of rCBF was computed for a single 40-s (autoradiographic) 15O-butanol uptake image. The mean global CBF found in 27 healthy subjects was 49 +/- 8 ml 100 g-1 min-1. Gray and white matter rCBF were 83 +/- 20 and 16 +/- 3 ml 100 g-1 min-1, respectively, with a corresponding partition coefficient p of 0.77 +/- 0.18 and 0.77 +/- 0.29 ml/g in both compartments. The quantitative images resulted in a significantly higher gray matter rCBF than the autoradiographic images.