Quantitation of nasal development in the early prenatal period using geometric morphometrics and MRI: a new insight into the critical period of Binder phenotype.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES Disturbance of the development of the nasal septum in the early prenatal period causes congenital facial anomalies characterized by a flat nose and defects of the anterior nasal spine (ANS), such as Binder phenotype. The present research aimed to assess the development of the nasal septum and the ANS with growth in the early prenatal period. METHODS Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 56 specimens. Mid-sagittal images were analyzed by using geometric morphometrics for the development of the nasal septum, and angle analysis was performed for the development of the ANS. Additionally, we calculated and visualized the ontogenetic allometry of the nasal septum. RESULTS Our results showed that the nasal septum changed shape in the anteroposterior direction in smaller specimens, while it maintained an almost isometric shape in larger specimens. Furthermore, mathematical evidence revealed that the maturation periods of the shapes of the ANS and the nasal septum were around 12 and 14 weeks of gestation, respectively. CONCLUSION The anteroposterior development of the nasal septum is specific until 14 weeks of gestation, and it is important for nasal protrusion and the development of the ANS. Therefore, the disturbance of such development could induce low nasal deformity, including Binder phenotype. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

DOI: 10.1002/pd.5106

Cite this paper

@article{Katsube2017QuantitationON, title={Quantitation of nasal development in the early prenatal period using geometric morphometrics and MRI: a new insight into the critical period of Binder phenotype.}, author={Motoki Katsube and Shigehito Yamada and Reina Miyazaki and Yutaka Yamaguchi and Haruyuki Makishima and Tetsuya Takakuwa and Akira Yamamoto and Yosuke Fujii and Naoki Morimoto and Tsuyoshi Ito and Hirohiko Imai and Shigehiko Suzuki}, journal={Prenatal diagnosis}, year={2017}, volume={37 9}, pages={907-915} }