Quantifying the roles of water pH and hardness levels in development and biological fitness indices of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

@article{Ukubuiwe2020QuantifyingTR,
  title={Quantifying the roles of water pH and hardness levels in development and biological fitness indices of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)},
  author={A. C. Ukubuiwe and C. C. Ojianwuna and I. K. Olayemi and Francis Ofurum Arimoro and Chinenye Catherine Ukubuiwe},
  journal={The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology},
  year={2020},
  volume={81},
  pages={1-10}
}
The present study was designed to quantify the contributions of water pH and hardness required for development and adult fitness indices of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) mosquitoes. To this end, seven water pH conditions (pH 4.0–10.0) and five hardness levels (0, 30, 90, 150 and 210 mg/L CaCO3) were simulated following standard protocols. Day-old larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus were reared in these simulated water-media conditions till emergence. Entomological indices for… Expand
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