Quantifying the (X/peanut)-shaped structure in edge-on disc galaxies: length, strength, and nested peanuts

@article{Ciambur2016QuantifyingT,
  title={Quantifying the (X/peanut)-shaped structure in edge-on disc galaxies: length, strength, and nested peanuts},
  author={Bogdan C. Ciambur and Alister W. Graham},
  journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
  year={2016},
  volume={459},
  pages={1276-1292}
}
  • B. Ciambur, A. Graham
  • Published 29 February 2016
  • Physics
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
X-shaped or peanut-shaped (X/P) bulges are observed in more than 40% of (nearly) edge-on disc galaxies, though to date a robust method to quantify them is lacking. Using Fourier harmonics to describe the deviation of galaxy isophotes from ellipses, we demonstrate with a sample of 11 such galaxies (including NGC 128) that the sixth Fourier component ($B_6$) carries physical meaning by tracing this X/P structure. We introduce five quantitative diagnostics based on the radial $B_6$ profile, namely… 
Quantifying the (X/peanut)-shaped structure of the Milky Way – new constraints on the bar geometry
The nature, size and orientation of the dominant structural components in the Milky Way's inner ~4 kpc - specifically the bulge and bar - have been the subject of conflicting interpretations in the
Building the peanut: simulations and observations of peanut-shaped structures and ansae in face-on disk galaxies
(X/peanut)-shaped features observed in a significant fraction of disk galaxies are thought to have formed from vertically buckled bars. Despite being three dimensional structures, they are
Double X/Peanut structures in barred galaxies – insights from an N-body simulation
Boxy, peanut- or X-shaped "bulges" are observed in a large fraction of barred galaxies viewed in, or close to, edge-on projection, as well as in the Milky Way. They are the product of dynamical
Orbital Ingredients for Cooking X-structures in Edge-on Galaxies
X-structures are often observed in galaxies hosting the so-called B/PS (boxy/peanuts) bulges and are visible from the edge-on view. They are the most notable features of B/PS bulges and appear as
The frequency and stellar-mass dependence of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges in barred galaxies
From a sample of 84 local barred, moderately inclined disc galaxies, we determine the fraction that hosts boxy or peanut-shaped (B/P) bulges (the vertically thickened inner parts of bars). We find
Revealing the cosmic evolution of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges from HST COSMOS and SDSS
Vertically thickened bars, observed in the form of boxy/peanut (B/P) bulges, are found in the majority of massive barred disc galaxies in the local Universe, including our own. B/P bulges indicate
Tilted outer and inner structures in edge-on galaxies?
Tilted and warped discs inside tilted dark matter haloes are predicted from numerical and semi-analytical studies. In this paper, we use deep imaging to demonstrate the likely existence of tilted
Measuring the X-shaped structures in edge-on galaxies
We present a detailed photometric study of a sample of 22 edge-on galaxies with clearly visible X-shaped structures. We propose a novel method to derive geometrical parameters of these features,
Edge-on boxes with X-features as parts of galactic bars
Context. This paper is a contribution to the discussion about whether the X/peanut component is part of the bar, or the bar itself. Aims. Our goal is to present a clear-cut case of a barred-spiral
On the orbits that generate the X-shape in the Milky Way bulge
The Milky Way (MW) bulge shows a boxy/peanut or X-shaped bulge (hereafter BP/X) when viewed in infrared ormicrowave bands.We examine orbits in an N-body model of a barred disc galaxy that is scaled
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 88 REFERENCES
Peanuts at an angle: detecting and measuring the three-dimensional structure of bars in moderately inclined galaxies
We show that direct detection and measurement of the vertically thickened parts of bars (so called ‘boxy’ or ‘peanut- shaped’ bulges) are possible not only for edge-on galaxies but also for galaxies
The Kinematic Signature of Face-on Peanut-shaped Bulges
We present a kinematic diagnostic for peanut-shaped bulges in nearly face-on galaxies. The face-on view provides a novel perspective on peanuts that would allow study of their relation to bars and
Confirmation of a kinematic diagnostic for face-on box/peanut-shaped bulges
We present the results of high-resolution absorption-line spectroscopy of three face-on galaxies, NGC 98, NGC 600, and NGC 1703, with the aim of searching for box/peanut (B/P) shaped bulges. These
The Nature of Boxy/Peanut-Shaped Bulges in Spiral Galaxies
We present a systematic observational study of the relationship between bars and boxy/peanut-shaped (B/PS) bulges. We first review and discuss proposed mechanisms for their formation, focusing on
Mapping the Three-dimensional "X-shaped Structure" in Models of the Galactic Bulge
Numerical simulations have shown that the X-shaped structure in the Milky Way bulge can naturally arise from bar instability and buckling instability. To understand the influence of buckling
Box- and peanut-shaped bulges - I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350 edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 ( Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies , de Vaucouleurs et al. 1991). A visual
IC 4767 (the X-galaxy) - the missing link for understanding galaxies with peanut-shaped bulges
Photometric and kinematic observations of the peculiar S0 galaxy IC 4767, the X-galaxy, are presented. At various intensities the bulge of this galaxy looks like a normal spheroidal system with
Establishing the connection between peanut-shaped bulges and galactic bars
It has been suggested that the peanut-shaped bulges seen in some edge-on disk galaxies are due to the presence of a central bar. Although bars cannot be detected photometrically in edge-on galaxies,
Establishing the level of cylindrical rotation in boxy/peanut bulges
We present SAURON integral-field observations of a sample of 12 mid-to-high-inclination disc galaxies, to unveil hidden bars on the basis of their kinematics, i.e. the correlation between velocity
A vertical resonance heating model for X- or peanut-shaped galactic bulges
We explore a second-order Hamiltonian vertical resonance model for X-shaped or peanut-shaped galactic bulges. The X-or peanut-shape is caused by the 2: 1 vertical Lindblad resonance with the bar,
...
...