Quantifying natural variability as a method to detect environmental change: Definitions of the normal range for a single observation and the mean of m observations.

@article{Barrett2015QuantifyingNV,
  title={Quantifying natural variability as a method to detect environmental change: Definitions of the normal range for a single observation and the mean of m observations.},
  author={Timothy J. Barrett and Kelly A Hille and Rainie L. Sharpe and Katherine Marie Harris and Hilary M. Machtans and Peter Miles Chapman},
  journal={Environmental toxicology and chemistry},
  year={2015},
  volume={34 5},
  pages={
          1185-95
        }
}
The normal range has been defined as the range that encloses 95% of reference values; in practice this range has been defined as the reference mean ± 2 standard deviations (SD). When sample sizes are small and reference data are not normally distributed, the mean ± 2 SDs do not enclose 95% of data values. Prediction intervals (PI) calculated using sample statistics are used in the present study to define the normal range for a single observation and the mean of m observations. The PIs provide… CONTINUE READING
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