Quantification of para‐phenylenediamine and heavy metals in henna dye

@article{Kang2006QuantificationOP,
  title={Quantification of para‐phenylenediamine and heavy metals in henna dye},
  author={Ik-Joon Kang and Mu-Hyoung Lee},
  journal={Contact Dermatitis},
  year={2006},
  volume={55}
}
Henna (Lawsonia inermis, family Lythraceae) is a shrub cultivated in India, Sri Lanka and North Africa and contains the active dye lawsone (2‐hydroxy‐1,4‐naphthoquinone). Henna dye is obtained from the dried leaves, which are powdered and mixed with oil or water and are used to prepare hair and body dyes. Temporary henna tattoos are readily available worldwide, last on the skin for several weeks and offer a self‐limited, convenient alternative to a permanent tattoo. The addition of para… 
Determination of Heavy Metals and Other Toxic Ingredients in Henna(Lawsonia inermis)
Background: The plant Henna (Lawsonia inermis, family Lythraceae) is a naturally grown or cultivated plant allover Africa and Asia. Marketed Henna is a natural powdered material derived from dried
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Henna is widely used by Libyan women as a cosmetic, which may contain lead (pb), cadmium (Cd) and other toxic heavy metals. The purpose of this study was to determine heavy metal content of seven
Levels of Some Heavy Metals in the Leaves of Henna Plant (Lawsonia Inermis) within Lamu County, Kenya
Henna plant scientifically known as Lawsonia inermis is an ethno botanical plant used majorly for preparation of dye called henna. The plant contains a pigment called Laws one which makes it suitable
REVIEW ON HEENA PLANT (LAWSONIA INERMIS) AND ITS APPLICATIONS
TLDR
Analysis of FTIR spectra of Heena Green Leaves and Heena Brown Seeds both shows presence of various functional groups such as Acids – Carboxylic acids COOH; Alcohols Secondary CH–OH; Amides –CO–NH2.
Determination of para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) in Henna in the United Arab Emirates
TLDR
The study showed that PPD was present in all of the black henna samples at concentrations ranging between 0.4% and 29.5% and higher than that recommended for hair dyes in most of the blacks samples.
Microscopical Characters, Heavy Metals Level and Histopathological Effects of Lawsonia inermis L. Leaves in Female Mice
TLDR
Both market and collected henna were contaminated with a high level of heavy metals specially lead (Pd) and the histopathological findings implied that there are many histological changes on the kidney tissues such as aggregation of round cells and congestion of blood vessels.
Side‐effects of henna and semi‐permanent ‘black henna’ tattoos: a full review
TLDR
The side‐effects of topical application of red and black henna, both cutaneous (allergic and non‐allergic) and systemic, are provided, with rare instances of contact allergy and type I hypersensitivity reactions.
Side-effects of henna and semi-permanent 'black henna' tattoos: a full review.
TLDR
This article provides a full review of the side-effects of topical application of red and black henna, both cutaneous (allergic and non-allergic) and systemic.
Henna stone: a lesser‐known solid material from which to obtain black henna paste
TLDR
It is proposed that ‘henna stones’ contain high proportions of p-phenylenediamine, significantly higher than previously reported PPD concentrations in black henna samples.
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References

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TLDR
The presence of PPD in black henna tattoo mixtures in high concentration poses a health hazard and a risk of allergic contact sensitization with potential long-term consequences.
Childhood Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Henna Tattoo
TLDR
It is suggested that the fashion of temporary henna tattoos in children is to be discouraged due to the serious consequences that a sensitization to para‐phenylenediamine could have in their future.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
Lawsone, the known quinonoid constituent of henna (Lawsonia inermis L.), as well as natural henna products, were used to detect hypersensitivity to henna and p-phenylenediamine was strongly positive in all patients.
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