Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus (named Xiebai in China) is a folk medicine with medicinal values for the treatment of thoracic obstruction and cardialgia, and a food additive as well. However, there is even no quantitative standard for Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus recorded in the current edition of the Chinese Pharmacopeia. Hence, simultaneous assay of multiple components is urgent. In this study, chemometric methods were firstly applied to discover the components with significant fluctuation among multiple Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus samples based on optimized fingerprints. Meanwhile, the major components and main absorbed components in rats were all selected as its representative components. Subsequently, a sensitive method was established for the simultaneous determination of 54 components (15 components for quantification and 39 components for semiquantification) by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Moreover, the validated method was successfully applied to evaluate the quality of multiple samples on the market. It became known that multiple Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus samples varied significantly and showed poor consistency. This work illustrated that the proposed approach could improve the quality of Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus, and it also provided a feasible method for quality evaluation of other traditional Chinese medicines.