# Quantal phase factors accompanying adiabatic changes

@article{Berry1984QuantalPF, title={Quantal phase factors accompanying adiabatic changes}, author={Michael V. Berry}, journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences}, year={1984}, volume={392}, pages={45 - 57} }

A quantal system in an eigenstate, slowly transported round a circuit C by varying parameters R in its Hamiltonian Ĥ(R), will acquire a geometrical phase factor exp{iγ(C)} in addition to the familiar dynamical phase factor. An explicit general formula for γ(C) is derived in terms of the spectrum and eigenstates of Ĥ(R) over a surface spanning C. If C lies near a degeneracy of Ĥ, γ(C) takes a simple form which includes as a special case the sign change of eigenfunctions of real symmetric…

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