Qualitative or Quantitative Differences Between Asperger’s Disorder and Autism? Historical Considerations

  title={Qualitative or Quantitative Differences Between Asperger’s Disorder and Autism? Historical Considerations},
  author={James L. Sanders},
  journal={Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders},
  • James L. Sanders
  • Published 23 June 2009
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
The histories of autism and Asperger’s Disorder (AD), based on original contributions by Kanner and Asperger, are reviewed in relation to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Their original articles appear to have influenced the distinction between AD and autism made in the DSM-IV. Based on up-to-date empirical research, however, it appears that AD and autism are not qualitatively distinct disorders, but are different quantitative manifestations of the same disorder. The differences between AD and… 

DSM-5 ASD Moves Forward into the Past

Findings do not support the conceptualization of AD, AsD and PDDNOS as a single category of ASD and future research and clinical practice will continue to find ways to meaningfully subtype the ASD.

Categorical and Dimensional Structure of Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Nosologic Validity of Asperger Syndrome

The study provides evidence that AS and autism are not qualitatively distinct disorders, but rather different quantitative manifestations of the same disorder, and does not support the thesis that autistic disorders are discrete phenotypes.

The relationship of cognitive profile to differential diagnosis of high-functioning autism and Asperger's Syndrome

The adequacy of diagnostic criteria for Asperger’s syndrome (AS) has been debated, and many in the field do not believe that AS warrants a discrete subgrouping, considering AS to differ from classic

Differences in Challenging Behaviors Between Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger’s Disorder

Children with HFA demonstrated the greatest amount of challenging behaviors in comparison to children with Asperger’s Disorder; however, these differences were not evident with respect to individual behavior items.

Views on the Diagnostic Labels of Autism and Asperger’s Disorder and the Proposed Changes in the DSM

Analysis of the 547 participant responses confirmed an increase stigma is associated with the label of autism, with autism considered to be a more severe than the condition of Asperger’s disorder.

Subtyping the Autism Spectrum Disorder: Comparison of Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome

Examination of whether AS differed from HFA in clinical profiles and the impact of DSM-5's innovation suggested that an AS empirical distinction within autism spectrum disorder should be clinically useful.

Asperger’s Disorder will be Back

  • L. Tsai
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders
  • 2013
It is plausible to predict that the field of ASD would run full circle during the next decade or two and that AspD will be back in the next edition of DSM, although DSM-5 ASD will eliminate Asperger’s disorder.

From Asperger's Autistischen Psychopathen to DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder and Beyond: A Subthreshold Autism Spectrum Model

A Subthreshold Autism Spectrum Model is proposed that encompasses not only threshold-level manifestations but also mild/atypical symptoms, gender-specific features, behavioral manifestations and personality traits associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Genetic Etiology of Autism

Due to the great phenotypic variability of carriers and the subjectivity of the differential diagnostic criteria of "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), ASD is today the most appropriate denomination.

The diagnosis and epidemiology of autism

The way in which autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is identified, defined and diagnosed is described and how changes in the conceptualisation and understanding of autism have impacted on clinical practice and research findings are discussed.



Annotation: The similarities and differences between autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder: a review of the empirical evidence.

There is currently insufficient evidence to establish the validity of Asperger's disorder as a syndrome distinct from high-functioning autism, and the findings are consistent with the view that these disorders belong on an autism spectrum.

Cognitive and symptom profiles in Asperger’s syndrome and high‐functioning autism

Autistic cognitive characteristics shared by both Asperger syndrome and HFA subjects appear to support the validity of the current diagnostic classification of PDD.

Influence of IQ and Age in Childhood Autism: Lack of Support for DSM-IV Asperger's Disorder

This finding does not support the DSM-IV's use of normal cognition as one criterion for creating two distinct diagnostic subgroups (Asperger's disorder and autistic disorder) because differences between children with normal versus below normal cognition can be explained simply by differences in IQ and age.

Defining the Behavioral Phenotype of Asperger Syndrome

  • M. Ghaziuddin
  • Psychology
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders
  • 2008
Despite the overlap between AS and autism, subjects with AS showed a distinct pattern of social impairment, and implications of these findings are discussed.

Three Diagnostic Approaches to Asperger Syndrome: Implications for Research

Diagnostic assignments of AS based on three commonly used approaches have low agreement and lead to different results in comparisons of IQ profiles, patterns of comorbidity, and familial aggregation of psychiatric symptoms across the approach-specific resultant groups of HFA, AS, and PDD-NOS.

Asperger's syndrome: evidence of an empirical distinction from high-functioning autism.

This study compared the neuropsychological profiles of individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) and suggests that HFA and AS are empirically distinguishable on measures independent of diagnostic criteria.

Two-year outcome of preschool children with autism or Asperger's syndrome.

It appears that Asperger's disorder and autism represent parallel but potentially overlapping developmental trajectories.

Differentiating Autism and Asperger Syndrome on the Basis of Language Delay or Impairment

Regression analysis revealed that specific language impairment at time 2 more often accounted for the greatest variation in outcome scores in adolescence than the standard diagnosis of AS versus HFA based on history of language delay.

Asperger’s Syndrome: A Comparison of Clinical Diagnoses and Those Made According to the ICD-10 and DSM-IV

Results contrast with those of others who have stated that the diagnosis of AS using ICD-10/DSM-IV criteria is ‘virtually impossible’, and it is suggested that this is due to limitations inherent in these criteria.

Defining the Intellectual Profile of Asperger Syndrome: Comparison with High-Functioning Autism

As a group, subjects with AS showed a higher verbal IQ and higher scores on information and vocabulary subtests than those with HFA, however, scores of several AS and HFA subjects showed a mixed pattern.