Qualitative Review of Serotonin Syndrome, Ecstasy (MDMA) and the use of Other Serotonergic Substances: Hierarchy of Risk

@article{Silins2007QualitativeRO,
  title={Qualitative Review of Serotonin Syndrome, Ecstasy (MDMA) and the use of Other Serotonergic Substances: Hierarchy of Risk},
  author={Edmund Silins and Jan Copeland and Paul Dillon},
  journal={Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry},
  year={2007},
  volume={41},
  pages={649 - 655}
}
Growth of the antidepressant market and widespread use of the illicit drug ecstasy (methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) creates a need to delineate the potential harms associated with the concomitant use of ecstasy and serotonergic pharmaceutical drugs. One such harm is serotonin syndrome. The study aimed to synthesize the risk of serotonin syndrome associated with the concomitant use of ecstasy and other serotonergic substances in a clinically relevant hierarchy for psychiatrists and other… 

Tables from this paper

Ecstasy use and serotonin syndrome: a neglected danger to adolescents and young adults prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
TLDR
The increasing incidences of recreational ecstasy use and SSRI pharmacotherapy among multiple psychiatric disorders in the adolescent population have made this an overlooked yet increasingly relevant danger, which poses a threat to public health.
Reported Cases of Serotonin Syndrome in MDMA Users in FAERS Database
TLDR
Twenty SS cases in people exposed to MDMA were found, all of which had also taken one or more substances with serotonergic properties in addition to MDMA, including amphetamines, stimulants, and opioids, and there were no cases of SS associated with MDMA where MDMA was the sole reported compound taken.
Serotonin syndrome.
TLDR
Proper education and awareness about serotonin syndrome will improve the accuracy of diagnosis and promote the institution of the appropriate treatment that may prevent significant morbidity and mortality.
Patterns and harms of pharmaceutical drug use among ecstasy users in Australia.
TLDR
Investigation of the patterns and harms of concomitant use of pharmaceutical drugs and ecstasy, and participants' experiences when visiting a General Practitioner, highlight a number of areas for future research.
Cortisol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Neurohormonal Aspects of Bioenergetic Stress in Ecstasy Users
  • A. Parrott
  • Biology, Medicine
    Neuropsychobiology
  • 2009
TLDR
The energizing hormone cortisol is involved in the psychobiology of MDMA, probably via its effects on energy metabolism, and may contribute to the variance in functional and structural consequences of repeated ecstasy usage.
Guidance on the clinical management of acute and chronic harms of club drugs and novel psychoactive substances.
TLDR
National guidelines produced by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence determine the wider principles within which treatment and care should be provided within drug services, EDs, primary care, sexual health and mental health services in the UK.
MDMA-Associated Liver Toxicity: Pathophysiology, Management, and Current State of Knowledge.
TLDR
The putative mechanisms by which MDMA can cause liver damage are explored, with emphasis on patient-related factors that explain why some individuals are more susceptible than others to damage from MDMA.
Ecstasy, legal highs and designer drug use: A Canadian perspective
Recreational drug use in Canada is not uncommon, but as with most societies, illegal drug use carries harsh penalties resulting in a criminal record when an individual is successfully prosecuted.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 82 REFERENCES
The confounding problem of polydrug use in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users: a brief overview
The popular dance drug ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine -- MDMA) is neurotoxic upon central serotonergic neurons in laboratory animals and possibly also in humans. In recent years, several
Recreational Ecstasy/MDMA, the serotonin syndrome, and serotonergic neurotoxicity
  • A. Parrott
  • Psychology, Biology
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
  • 2002
Neurotoxicity of methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDMA; ecstasy) in humans: how strong is the evidence for persistent brain damage?
TLDR
Despite large methodological problems the bulk of evidence suggests residual alterations of serotonergic transmission in MDMA users, although at least partial restitution may occur after long-term abstinence, and functional sequelae may persist even after longer periods of abstinence.
The health effects of ecstasy: a literature review.
TLDR
Ecstasy users should be aware of the importance of controlling body temperature and fluid intake, early signs of adverse effects, and the need to seek medical assistance promptly, as well as the findings of animal and human studies.
A bitter pill. Overview of ecstasy (MDMA, MDA) related fatalities
TLDR
A number of methodological problems can contribute to making difficult the interpretation of the role played by ecstasy in so-called ecstasy-related deaths, especially so if accurate information is not available.
Altered states: the clinical effects of Ecstasy.
The serotonin uptake inhibitor citalopram reduces acute cardiovascular and vegetative effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘Ecstasy’) in healthy volunteers
TLDR
It is suggested that physiological effects of MDMA in humans are partially due to an interaction of MDMA with the serotonin carrier and a subsequent release of serotonin.
The agony of “ecstasy”
TLDR
While certainly the best-known derivative of amphetamine, MDMA is only one of a range that have been used illicitly, and Numerous other amphetamine analogues have appeared since the 1960s, either as recreational drugs in their own right, or as contaminants in illicit drug samples.
Ecstasy and the concomitant use of pharmaceuticals.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...