Spike-related traits contribute greatly to grain yield in wheat. To localize wheat chromosomes for factors affecting the seven spike-related traits—i.e., the spike length (SL), the basal sterile spikelet number (BSSN), the top sterile spikelet number (TSSN), the sterile spikelet number in total (SSN), the spikelet number per spike (SPN), the fertile spikelet number (FSN) and the spike density (SD)—two F8:9 recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations were generated. They were derived from crosses between Weimai 8 and Jimai 20 (WJ) and between Weimai 8 and Yannong 19 (WY), comprising 485 and 229 lines, respectively. Combining the two new linkage maps and the phenotypic data collected from the four environments, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection for the seven spike-related traits and evaluated their genetic correlations. Up to 190 putative additive QTL for the seven spike-related traits were detected in WJ and WY, distributing across all the 21 wheat chromosomes. Of these, at least nine pairwise QTL were common to the two populations. In addition, 38 QTL showed significance in at least two of the four different environments, and 18 of these were major stable QTL. Thus, they will be of great value for marker assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs. Though co-located QTL were universal, every trait owned its unique QTL and even two closely related traits were not excluded. The two related populations with a large/moderate population size made the results authentic and accurate. This study will enhance the understanding of the genetic basis of spike-related traits.