Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of the worldwide distributed zoonosis Q fever. This review gives a comprehensive overview about the etiological agent and epidemiology of C. burnetii. Moreover, the role of arthropod vectors in transmission of C. burnetii is discussed. Detailed information is provided about current diagnostics and vaccination and importantly the most recent developments for improving the respective measures in animals. Immunoproteomic approaches are presented aimed to replace currently used whole cell antigen with well-defined and reproducible epitopes. Ruminants are considered as the main reservoir for human infections. The often subclinical infection in animals and suboptimal sensitivity of diagnostics hamper the identification of infected animals, while effectiveness of the current vaccine is questionable. New strategies based on advanced diagnostics and vaccines in animals will have the potential to prevent Q fever spreading and transmission to humans.