A key aim of evolutionary biology - inferring the action of natural selection on wild species - can be achieved by comparing neutral genetic differentiation between populations (F(ST)) with quantitative genetic variation (Q(ST)). Each of the three possible outcomes of comparisons of Q(ST) and F(ST) (Q(ST) > F(ST), Q(ST) = F(ST), Q(ST) < F(ST)) is associated with an inference (diversifying selection, genetic drift, uniform selection, respectively). However, published empirical and theoretical studies have focused on the Q(ST) > F(ST) outcome. We believe that this reflects the absence of a straightforward biological interpretation of the Q(ST) < F(ST) pattern. We here report recent evidence of this neglected evolutionary pattern, provide guidelines to its interpretation as either a canalization phenomenon or a consequence of uniform selection and discuss the significant importance this issue will have for the area of evolutionary biology.