Pyrrolysine Encoded by UAG in Archaea: Charging of a UAG-Decoding Specialized tRNA

@article{Srinivasan2002PyrrolysineEB,
  title={Pyrrolysine Encoded by UAG in Archaea: Charging of a UAG-Decoding Specialized tRNA},
  author={Gayathri Rajaram Srinivasan and Carey M. James and Joseph Adrian Krzycki},
  journal={Science},
  year={2002},
  volume={296},
  pages={1459 - 1462}
}
Pyrrolysine is a lysine derivative encoded by the UAG codon in methylamine methyltransferase genes of Methanosarcina barkeri. Near a methyltransferase gene cluster is thepylT gene, which encodes an unusual transfer RNA (tRNA) with a CUA anticodon. The adjacent pylS gene encodes a class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that charges the pylT-derived tRNA with lysine but is not closely related to known lysyl-tRNA synthetases. Homologs of pylS and pylT are found in a Gram-positive bacterium. Charging a… 

Atypical archaeal tRNA pyrrolysine transcript behaves towards EF-Tu as a typical elongator tRNA.

Hydrolysis protection assays show that lysylated tRNA(Pyl) can be recognized by bacterial elongation factor, and indicates that no antideterminant sequence is present in the body of the tRNAs transcript to prevent it from interacting with EF-Tu, in contrast with the otherwise functionally similar t RNA(Sec) that mediates selenocysteine incorporation.

The direct genetic encoding of pyrrolysine.

  • J. Krzycki
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Current opinion in microbiology
  • 2005

Functional context, biosynthesis, and genetic encoding of pyrrolysine.

Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase: an ordinary enzyme but an outstanding genetic code expansion tool.

tRNAPyl: Structure, function, and applications

The work that has been done to elucidate the structure of tRNAPyl, its interaction with PylRS, and survey recent progress on the use of t RNAPyl as a tool for genetic code expansion are examined.

Translation of UAG as Pyrrolysine

Pyrrolysine incorporation appears to occur to some extent by amber suppression on a genome-wide basis in methanogenic Archaea, and some methanogen genomes encode additional homologs of elongation and release factors, however, their limited distribution suggests at best a nonessential role in enhancing UAG translation as pyrrolesine.

Direct charging of tRNACUA with pyrrolysine in vitro and in vivo

This work establishes that synthetic l-pyrrolysine is attached as a free molecule to tRNACUA by PylS, an archaeal class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, and shows that the genetic code of E. coli can be expanded to include UAG-directed pyr rolysine incorporation into proteins.

Pyrrolysine in archaea: a 22nd amino acid encoded through a genetic code expansion.

The article reviews the authors' knowledge of this fascinating exception to the 'standard' genetic code, pyrrolysine, and reveals wider presence in archaea, deepened functional understanding and remarkable carbon source-dependent expression of expanded decoding and extended exploitation of the pyr rolysine machinery for synthetic code expansion.
...

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