In different animal investigations Pyrost demonstrated osteoconductive and osteostimulative effects. In ectopic tissues and especially in conditions of low osteogenetic potency, the combination of Pyrost and autogenic bone marrow effects bone formation. In a clinical prospective study, Pyrost was implanted in 1117 cases in the following indications: Donor site defects after bone transplantation, bone defects after tumor resection, revision of THA, acetabuloplasty, fracture treatment, pseudarthrosis and lengthening osteotomy, spondylodesis. In 87.3% the regeneration of the bone defects was complete, in 8% a partial regeneration was found. Excessive bone formation took place in 2.7%, insufficient regeneration in 2.0% in cases of instability or infection. According to the clinical results Pyrost is a suitable bone substitute in small bone defects and it is a valuable completion to the autogenic bone graft in large defects. In disadvantageous bone bed Pyrost has to be augmented with bone marrow and in large segmental defects the combination with autogenic bone grafts is recommendable. Presupposition for the application of bone substitutes like Pyrost in large defects is a sufficient primary stability of the bone bed. The application in infected tissue is not favorable.