Pygmy chimpanzee as a possible prototype for the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas

  title={Pygmy chimpanzee as a possible prototype for the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas},
  author={Adrienne L. Zihlman and John E. Cronin and DOUGLAS L. Cramer and Vincent M. Sarich},
A CONVINCING theory of human origins must clarify man's relationships with living primates and with the ancestral forms known only through fossils. Phylogenetic relationships have previously been determined mainly by anatomical similarities, but now, biochemical similarities provide independent criteria for evolutionary relationships. Albumin and transferrin immunology, immunodifrusion, DNA annealing and amino acid analysis all indicate that chimpanzees, gorillas and humans share a substantial… 

Fossil apes and human evolution

The morphology of fossil apes was varied and it is likely that the last shared ape ancestor had its own set of traits, different from those of modern humans and modern apes, both of which have been undergoing separate suites of selection pressures.

Body Size and Skeletal Allometry in African Apes

Morphological analyses of the teeth and locomotor skeletons of pongids and humans also corroborate the Ferris et al. branching sequence, and a variety of shared, unique features of the karyotypes of African apes lend strong credence to this phylogeny.

Hominid and gelada baboon evolution: Agreement between molecular and fossil time scales

This test involving paleontological evidence supports the molecular clock hypothesis and suggests a range of possible divergence times that overlaps with the first appearances of undoubted hominids and Theropithecus in the fossil record.

Nucleic acid evidence bearing on hominoid relationships

It appears somewhat more likely that chimps and humans shared a most recent common ancestor, but a strong case can be made for a tree that joins chimp and gorilla, and a trifurcation, though probably not literally correct, is a reasonable reconstruction.

An alternative paradigm for hominoid evolution

An alternative paradigm of hominoid evolution is considered here based on the hypothesis that the molecular clock data are correct and the placement of A. afarensis ancestral toHomo, Gorilla, andPan warrants further consideration.

The phylogenetic and taxonomic status of Pan paniscus: A chromosomal perspective

From the chromosomal perspective, the pygmy chimpanzee is not the best model for the last common ancestor of both humans and African apes, and all the African apes have evolved more from this lastcommon ancestor than is generally considered.

Insights into human evolution from 60 years of research on chimpanzees at Gombe

  • M. Wilson
  • Biology
    Evolutionary Human Sciences
  • 2021
Findings emerging from studies of the bonobo indicate that either bonobos are derived in these respects, or the many similarities between chimpanzees and humans evolved convergently.

The Common Ancestor

If the pygmy chimpanzee resembles the authors' common ancestor, then one might expect it to show a special resemblance to the earliest known hominids grouped in the genus Australopithecus.

Hypothesis: brain size and skull shape as criteria for a new hominin family tree.

  • P. Chardin
  • Biology
    Homo : internationale Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen
  • 2014



Evolution of type C viral genes: evidence for an Asian origin of man

Among the apes, only gorilla and chimpanzee seem to be African, whereas gibbon, orang-utan and man are identified as Asian, leading to the conclusion that most of man's evolution has occurred outside Africa.

Toward a Genealogical Description of the Primates

This volume shall emphasize that aspect of anagenesis which decelerated evolutionary rates in proteins after higher levels of integration of molecular specificities had been achieved.

Evolution and Interrelationships of the Catarrhine Primates

The object of this chapter is to present our assessment of phyletic relationships among Old World higher primates in the light of the “cladistic” methodology when possible, and to suggest possible

Some metric aspects of the permanent and deciduous dentition of the pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus)

A search of the literature reveals that odontological data on the pygmy chimpanzee is almost completely lacking. The great usefulness of such data for the interpretation of fossil pongids is

Skeletal differences between pygmy (Pan paniscus) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

It is concluded that pygmy and common chimpanzees are morphologically distinct and implications for hominoid evolution are discussed.

Plio—Pleistocene hominid discoveries in Hadar, Ethiopia

The collection suggests that Homo and Australopithecus coexisted as early as 3.0 Myr ago in Ethiopia, and a partial skeleton represents the most complete hominid known from this period.

Molecular Systematics of the Primates

This chapter aims to contribute toward a consensus as to just what comparative macromolecular data bearing on primate systematics is or what it should be.

Fossil hominids from the Laetolil Beds

The remains of 13 early hominids have been found in the Laetolil Beds in northern Tanzania, 30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, giving an upper limit averaging 3.59 Myr and a lower limit of 3.77 Myr.

New geochronologic and palaeomagnetic data for the hominid-bearing Hadar Formation of Ethiopia

A 2.6 Myr K/Ar age has been derived for a primary unreworked tuff high in the hominid-bearing Hadar Formation (Kada Hadar Member), stratigraphically above all the important fossil finds. A 2.6 Myr

Primate functional morphology and evolution

One of the books that can be recommended for new readers is primate functional morphology and evolution, which is not kind of difficult book to read.