Putting Time in Perspective: A Valid, Reliable Individual-Differences Metric

  title={Putting Time in Perspective: A Valid, Reliable Individual-Differences Metric},
  author={Philip G. Zimbardo and John Boyd},
  journal={Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
  • P. Zimbardo, John Boyd
  • Published 1 December 1999
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Time perspective (TP), a fundamental dimension in the construction of psychological time, emerges from cognitive processes partitioning human experience into past, present, and future temporal frames. The authors’ research program proposes that TP is a pervasive and powerful yet largely unrecognized influence on much human behavior. Although TP variations are learned and modified by a variety of personal, social, and institutional influences, TP also functions as an individual-differences… 
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