Putative protease inhibitor gene discovery and transcript profiling during fruit development and leaf damage in grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.).

Abstract

Seven putative protease inhibitor (PPI) cDNAs, representing four protein families, were isolated from a grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. Cv. Marsh) immature fruit flavedo cDNA library. Cloned open reading frames encoded proteins with similarity to, and protein signatures for: legume Kuntiz inhibitors (lkiL-1, lkiL-2, lkiL-3), potato trypsin inhibitor I (ptiIL-1), serpins (serpL-1), cystatins (cystL-1), and gamma thionins (gthL-1). Response of transcript abundance to fruit development and leaf wounding was determined for all but lkiL-1 using real-time RT-PCR. Immature leaves had the highest transcript levels for all PPIs. The gthL-1 transcript in immature leaves was the most abundant transcript but was absent from healthy mature leaves. In fruit flavedo, transcripts for all PPIs were most abundant in youngest fruit (<15 mm dia. fruit), and declined during development, but displayed different patterns of developmental change. Mechanical or Diaprepes root weevil (DRW) feeding damage to leaves caused a <10-fold reduction or had no effect on transcript level with the exception of gthL-1 which, as a result of damage, increased >50-fold in mature leaves and decreased >1400-fold in immature leaves. This developmental control of transcript response to wounding in a woody perennial is opposite of what has been observed for defensive proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in other plants (typically herbaceous and/or annual plants), where younger leaves typically invoke a higher defensive proteinase inhibitor transcript accumulation than older tissues. Except for gthL-1, the PPI transcripts were minimally responsive or unresponsive to wounding. Changes in PPI transcript levels suggest diverse roles for the products of these genes in citrus, with only gthL-1 responding in a defense-like manner.

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Cite this paper

@article{Shatters2004PutativePI, title={Putative protease inhibitor gene discovery and transcript profiling during fruit development and leaf damage in grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.).}, author={Robert G. Jr. Shatters and Michael G. Bausher and Wayne B. Hunter and Jos{\'e} X. Chaparro and Phat M. Dang and Randall P. Niedz and Richard T. Mayer and Thomas G. McCollum and Xiomara H Sinisterra}, journal={Gene}, year={2004}, volume={326}, pages={77-86} }