Putative human pheromone androstadienone attunes the mind specifically to emotional information

@article{Hummer2009PutativeHP,
  title={Putative human pheromone androstadienone attunes the mind specifically to emotional information},
  author={Tom A. Hummer and Martha K. McClintock},
  journal={Hormones and Behavior},
  year={2009},
  volume={55},
  pages={548-559}
}
The putative human pheromone Delta4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone), a non-androgenic steroid found in sweat and saliva, modulates psychological, physiological and hormonal responses without detection as an odor. To determine the specific psychological processes altered by androstadienone, four studies were completed by 50 men and women after solutions of 250 microM androstadienone or clove-odor control carrier, on separate days, were applied to their upper lip: (1) face pairs were… 
A human chemosignal modulates frontolimbic activity and connectivity in response to emotional stimuli
TLDR
Exposure to androstadienone was found to act as a chemical signal to increase attention to positively valenced information via modifications to amygdala connectivity, which drove downstream increases in orbitofrontal and prefrontal activity.
A Putative Human Pheromone, Androstadienone, Increases Cooperation between Men
TLDR
To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show that androstadienone directly affects behaviour in human males and to increase cooperative behaviour in the decision making tasks.
Exposure to Androstenes Influences Processing of Emotional Words
There is evidence that human-produced androstenes affect attitudinal, emotional and physiological states in a context-dependent manner, suggesting that they could be involved in modulating social
The human body odor compound androstadienone leads to anger-dependent effects in an emotional Stroop but not dot-probe task using human faces
TLDR
Exposure to androstadienone seems to potentiate the relevance of angry faces in both men and women in connection with interference control, while processes of visuo-spatial cueing remain unaffected.
Androstadienone’s influence on the perception of facial and vocal attractiveness is not sex specific
TLDR
The results favor the hypothesis of general effects over sex-specific effects of androstadienone, thus questioning the relevance of focusing on that particular compound in the study of human attractiveness through body odor and encouraging the search for other semiochemicals that might be significant for human mate choice.
The human body odor compound androstadienone increases neural conflict coupled to higher behavioral costs during an emotional Stroop task
TLDR
It is suggested that AND increases interference processing in brain areas that are heavily recruited during emotional conflict which was coupled to higher costs in resolving emotional conflicts with stronger interference‐related brain activation under AND.
Pheromones and their effect on women’s mood and sexuality
TLDR
Some data indicate that 16-androstene pheromones, in particular androstadienone, play a beneficial role in women’s mood, focus and sexual response, and perhaps also in mate selection.
Androstadienone in Motor Reactions of Men and Women toward Angry Faces
TLDR
The endogenous compound androstadienone modulating the evaluation of others and activating the human fear system was hypothesized in terms of processing socially relevant cues by regulating responses to angry faces by investigating arm movements in response to happy and angry facial expressions.
Androstadienone, a Chemosignal Found in Human Sweat, Increases Individualistic Behavior and Decreases Cooperative Responses in Men
TLDR
The findings support the role of androstadienone as a threatening signal of dominance that elicits behavioral avoidance and social withdrawal tendencies, possibly as a submissive response.
Pheromone effects on the human hypothalamus in relation to sexual orientation and gender.
TLDR
Results from recent brain imaging studies suggest that body odors evoke distinct neural responses from those observed with common nonsocial odors, and Neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the effects of human chemosignals are not yet clear and await future detailed analyses.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 105 REFERENCES
Psychological effects of subthreshold exposure to the putative human pheromone 4,16-androstadien-3-one
TLDR
This study corroborates earlier findings suggesting that androstadienone exposure yields effects on women's mood; the feeling of being focused, and these effects are replicable and occur also when androstADienone detection is rigorously controlled for across variation in menstrual cycle.
Evidence that androstadienone, a putative human chemosignal, modulates women’s attributions of men’s attractiveness
TLDR
Evidence that this androgen steroid may modulate women's judgments of men's attractiveness in an ecologically valid context is presented and it is suggested that research into the modulatory effects of androstadienone should be made within ecological valid contexts.
Context-dependent effects of steroid chemosignals on human physiology and mood
We examined the physiological and psychological effects of nanomolar amounts of steroids applied directly under the nose (Delta4,16-androstadien-3-one and 1,3,5,(10),16-estratetraen-3-ol). These
Psychological State and Mood Effects of Steroidal Chemosignals in Women and Men
We tested the hypothesis that isolated steroids, claimed to act like pheromones, affect human psychological state or mood. In the first experiment, we established that two steroids, Delta4,
Psychological Effects of Musky Compounds: Comparison of Androstadienone with Androstenol and Muscone
TLDR
Androstadienone's effects on psychological state were unique in comparison with those of androstenol and with muscone, providing additional evidence that androstADienone may be a pheromone.
Brain response to putative pheromones in lesbian women.
The progesterone derivative 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and the estrogen-like steroid estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST) are candidate compounds for human pheromones. In previous positron
Brain response to putative pheromones in homosexual men.
TLDR
The findings show that the brain reacts differently to the two putative pheromones compared with common odors, and suggest a link between sexual orientation and hypothalamic neuronal processes.
Subthreshold amounts of social odorant affect mood, but not behavior, in heterosexual women when tested by a male, but not a female, experimenter
TLDR
Results showed that exposure to a non-detectable amount of androstadienone modulated women's psychophysiological arousal and mood in a positive direction but did not change attention performance or rating of facial attractiveness.
The putative pheromone androstadienone activates cortical fields in the human brain related to social cognition
TLDR
Using 15O-butanol positron emission tomography (PET), regional cerebral blood flow changes in five healthy young women during exposure to androstadienone, a putative human pheromone, as well as pleasant, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral odours are measured.
Sniffing human sex-steroid derived compounds modulates mood, memory and autonomic nervous system function in specific behavioral contexts
TLDR
It is suggested that sex-steroidal compounds modulate mood, memory and autonomic nervous system responses and increase their significance within specific behavioral contexts and lend support to a specific role for these compounds in chemical communication between humans.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...