Push or Pull: Imitation vs. Emulation in Great Apes and Human Children

@article{Tennie2006PushOP,
  title={Push or Pull: Imitation vs. Emulation in Great Apes and Human Children},
  author={Claudio Tennie and Josep Call and Michael Tomasello},
  journal={Ethology},
  year={2006},
  volume={112},
  pages={1159-1169}
}
All four species of great apes and young human children (12–24 mo of age) were administered an imitation task designed to distinguish between results learning (emulation) and action learning (imitation). Some subjects were exposed to a demonstrator either pushing or pulling a door to open a box, whereas others simply saw the door of the box opening itself in one of the two directions (the ghost control). Most of the apes successfully opened the box in both experimental conditions, as well as in… 

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