Characterization and comparative studies of zebrafish and human recombinant dihydrofolate reductases--inhibition by folic acid and polyphenols.
Dihydrofolate reductase has been isolated from methotrexate-resistant WIL2 human lymphoblastoid cells. This subline produces ca. 150 times more enzyme than the parental drug-sensitive line. The reductase has been purified to homogeneity by methotrexate affinity chromatography, gel filtration, and preparative isoelectric focusing in a yield of 65%. The enzyme has a pI = 7.7 and a molecular weight of ca. 22000. The amino-terminal 27 amino acid residues have been determined, revealing the location of the single cysteine residue at position 6. Reaction of this cysteine with p-(hydroxy-mercuri)benzoate in the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) results in a 5-fold increase in enzyme activity. Other agents including KCl, urea, and thiourea also cause enzyme activation. The Km values for NADPH and dihydrofolate are 0.25 and 0.036 microM, respectively. Mercurial activation of the enzyme results in a 27-fold increase in the Km for NADPH and a 35-fold increase in the Km for dihydrofolate.