Flavin reductase coupling with two monooxygenases involved in dibenzothiophene desulfurization: purification and characterization from a non-desulfurizing bacterium, Paenibacillus polymyxa A-1
ipa-43d is a hypothetical gene identified by the Bacillus subtilis genome project (Mol. Microbiol. 10, 371-384 1993; Nature 390, 249-256 1997). The ipa-43d protein overexpressed in E. coli was purified to homogeneity and its properties were analyzed biochemically. The ipa-43d protein was found to be tightly associated with FMN and to be capable of reducing both nitrofurazone and FMN effectively. Although the ipa-43d protein catalysis obeys the ping-pong Bi-Bi mechanism, catalysis mode was changed to the sequential mechanism upon coupling with the bioluminescent reaction. Database search showed that B. subtilis possessed four genes (ipa-44d, ytmO, yddN, and yvbT), encoding proteins similar in amino acid sequence to LuxA and LuxB of Photobacterium fischeri, and, in particular, ipa-44d is immediately adjacent to the ipa-43d gene on the chromosome.