Pupil Size in Relation to Mental Activity during Simple Problem-Solving

  title={Pupil Size in Relation to Mental Activity during Simple Problem-Solving},
  author={Eckhard H. Hess and James M. Polt},
  pages={1190 - 1192}
Changes in pupil size during the solving of simple multiplication problems can be used as a direct measure of mental activity. The pupil response not only indicates mental activity in itself but shows that mental activity is closely correlated with problem difficulty, and that the size of the pupil increases with the difficulty of the problem. These findings relate to recent Russian research on the pupillary reflex in connection with orienting and brain stimulation. 
Changes in pupil size during an imagery task without motor response involvement
A previous study showed that pupillary dilation is associated with attempts to generate mental images to stimulus words, image arousal being indicated by a key press. The present study revealed
Pupillary responses during mental activities
With a new electronic technique, pupil size of 40 Ss was measured continuously during a series of intellectual tasks. Time estimation or counting elicited no pupillary changes, but pupil diameter
Pupil Size and Problem Solving
  • J. Bradshaw
  • Physics
    The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology
  • 1968
There was strong confirmation of the theory that this autonomic index can provide a sensitive measure of the fluctuating levels of attention and arousal, which are associated with the various aspects of information processing and response.
Eye-Tracking Data Analysis During Cognitive Task
This work investigates the use of eye-tracking as a method for analysis of mental effort in cognitive tasks. From a trivial task of counting objects, the proposal of this work is to present a study
Pupil Size and Mental Load
The findings of this experiment indicate that computer monitor’s radiance did not interfere with the researcher's ability to discriminate successfully between the participant's taskrelated pupil dilation.
Magnitude and latency of the pupillary response during an imagery task as a function of stimulus abstractness and imagery ability
The Ss who differed in imagery ability according to scores on a test battery were asked to generate mental images suggested by concrete and abstract stimulus words. Pupillary reactions were
The effect of word abstractness and pleasantness on pupil size during an imagery task
Findings from two studies demonstrate that a S’s pupils dilate when he attempts to generate mental images to words. Dilation, which may reflect the cognitive difficulty of the imagery task, was
Predicting Properties of Cognitive Pupillometry in Human–Computer Interaction: A Preliminary Investigation
This paper aims to investigate the predictive property of pupil dilation in an IT-related task. Previous work in the field of cognitive pupillometry has established that pupil size is associated with
Workload assessment for mental arithmetic tasks using the task-evoked pupillary response
The present study focuses on replicating the studies by Ahern (1978) and Klingner (2010), which found that for three levels of difficulty of mental multiplications, the more difficult multiplications yielded larger dilations of the pupil.
The Pupil as Marker of Cognitive Processes
Of all peripheral measures of (neuro-)physiological activity, pupil size is probably the easiest to access. Far beyond its well-known reaction to light incident on the eye, pupil size is a rich


Pupil Size as Related to Interest Value of Visual Stimuli
Increases in the size of the pupil of the eye have been found to accompany the viewing of emotionally toned or interesting visual stimuli. A technique for recording such changes has been developed,
Orientirowochnii Reflex I Voprosy Wisshei Nerwnoi Deiatelnosty (Akademii Pedagogischeskich Nauk RSFSR
  • Moscow
  • 1959
This report is a portion of my Ph.D. disser-References
    Smirnow, thesis (1952), as reported by Sokolow
    • 1952