Pup Production and Breeding Distribution of the Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica) in Relation to Human Impacts

@inproceedings{Harkonen2008PupPA,
  title={Pup Production and Breeding Distribution of the Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica) in Relation to Human Impacts},
  author={Tero Harkonen and Mart J{\"u}ssi and Mirgaly Baimukanov and Anders Bignert and Lilia Dmitrieva and Yesbol Kasimbekov and Mikhail Verevkin and Susan J. Wilson and Simon J. Goodman},
  booktitle={Ambio},
  year={2008}
}
Abstract Aerial surveys of Caspian seals on the winter ice field in Kazakhstan territorial waters were carried out in February 2005 and 2006 to assess the annual pup production for the species and natural predation on newborn pups. Estimated pup production was 21 063 in 2005 and 16 905 in 2006 (including an estimated figure for pups born in Russian territory in each year). The breeding population size of approximately 20 000 females is much less than published estimates from the late 1980s… 
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TLDR
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TLDR
The first satellite tracking study of Pusa caspica, an endangered, ice-breeding phocid seal, endemic to the Caspian Sea, is presented, and Hierarchical cluster analysis identified 3 distinct groups of summer dive behaviour, comprising shallow, intermediate and deep divers, which were also spatially exclusive.
Linking Climate Trends to Population Dynamics in the Baltic Ringed Seal: Impacts of Historical and Future Winter Temperatures
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The population comprises of three sub-populations, and the simulations suggest that all of them will experience severely hampered growth rates during the coming 90 years, adding burden to a species already haunted by other anthropogenic impacts.
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