Pup Production and Breeding Distribution of the Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica) in Relation to Human Impacts

  title={Pup Production and Breeding Distribution of the Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica) in Relation to Human Impacts},
  author={Tero Harkonen and Mart J{\"u}ssi and Mirgaly Baimukanov and Anders Bignert and Lilia Dmitrieva and Yesbol Kasimbekov and Mikhail Verevkin and Susan J. Wilson and Simon J. Goodman},
Abstract Aerial surveys of Caspian seals on the winter ice field in Kazakhstan territorial waters were carried out in February 2005 and 2006 to assess the annual pup production for the species and natural predation on newborn pups. Estimated pup production was 21 063 in 2005 and 16 905 in 2006 (including an estimated figure for pups born in Russian territory in each year). The breeding population size of approximately 20 000 females is much less than published estimates from the late 1980s… 
Inter-year variation in pup production of Caspian seals Pusa caspica 2005-2012 determined from aerial surveys
The observed inter-year variation may be partly due to underlying biological drivers influencing the fecundity of the population, although measurement errors arising from observation bias, plus variations in survey timing and weather conditions may also have contributed.
Breeding behavior and pup development of the Caspian seal, Pusa caspica
The Caspian seal, Pusa caspica, is an ice-breeding phocid endemic to the Caspian Sea. The breeding behavior of this species is poorly documented. Here, we report behavioral observations of 518
Caspian seal (Phoca caspica Gmelin, 1788) and its current status in the Caspian Sea
Life history of the Caspian seal and its current situation was investigated. Three of habitats of the Caspian seal were surveyed for the presence of the Caspian seals in 2010 and 2011 in Kazakhstan’s
Seasonal distribution and some biological parameters of the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) in the southeastern region of the Caspian Sea
The Caspian seals observed in autumn were significantly greater in number than in the other seasons, however, the number of juvenile seals were significantly more than adults (p 0.05), and a significant difference was observed between adult and juvenile seals in biometric parameters.
Collapse of a Marine Mammal Species Driven by Human Impacts
This work makes use of annual hunting records for Caspian seals dating back to the mid-19th century, and current census data from aerial surveys, to reconstruct historical abundance using a hind-casting model, showing that the current biomass of top predators in the Caspians is much reduced compared to historical conditions.
Assessment of Caspian Seal By-Catch in an Illegal Fishery Using an Interview-Based Approach
This study demonstrates the utility of interview-based approaches in providing rapid assessments of by-catch in illegal small-scale fisheries, which are not amenable to study by other methods.
Individual variation in seasonal movements and foraging strategies of a land-locked, ice-breeding pinniped
The first satellite tracking study of Pusa caspica, an endangered, ice-breeding phocid seal, endemic to the Caspian Sea, is presented, and Hierarchical cluster analysis identified 3 distinct groups of summer dive behaviour, comprising shallow, intermediate and deep divers, which were also spatially exclusive.
Linking Climate Trends to Population Dynamics in the Baltic Ringed Seal: Impacts of Historical and Future Winter Temperatures
The population comprises of three sub-populations, and the simulations suggest that all of them will experience severely hampered growth rates during the coming 90 years, adding burden to a species already haunted by other anthropogenic impacts.


Contamination Levels and Specific Accumulation of Persistent Organochlorines in Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica) from the Caspian Sea, Russia
Caspian seals can be considered to have higher degradation capacity for coplanar PCBs, probably due to the higher rate of pregnancy failure and less gender difference of organochlorine residue levels in adult animals.
The 2000 Canine Distemper Epidemic in Caspian Seals (Phoca caspica): Pathology and Analysis of Contributory Factors
The primary diagnosis in 11 of 13 seals was canine distemper, characterized by broncho-interstitial pneumonia, lymphocytic necrosis and depletion in lymphoid organs, and the presence of typical intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple epithelia, which were comparable to those of Caspian seals in previous years.
Canine distemper virus in a Caspian seal
The morbillivirus isolated from the Baikal seals was found to be involved in the seal deaths (Grachev and others, 1989, Osterhaus and others 1989b).
Mass die-Off of Caspian seals caused by canine distemper virus.
Results implicate canine distemper virus infection as the primary cause of death in Caspian seals from April to August 2000.
Density and distribution of the ringed seal in the Bothnian Bay
A modified strip census of basking ringed seals in the Bothnian Bay was carried out during the last week of April and the first week of May 1988. Of the total ice covered area, 23174 km2, 3236 km2
Ice cover variability in the Caspian and Aral seas from active and passive microwave satellite data
The paper discusses time and space variations of ice extent in the Caspian and Aral seas during the last decade (1992–2002). It uses synergy of data from active (radar altimeter) and passive
Ecology of the Caspian seal
  • Finnish Game Res
  • 1990