Punished for their Good Deeds

@article{Snyder1999PunishedFT,
  title={Punished for their Good Deeds},
  author={Mark Snyder and Allen M. Omoto and A. Lauren Crain},
  journal={American Behavioral Scientist},
  year={1999},
  volume={42},
  pages={1175 - 1192}
}
This research investigated the impact of AIDS-related stigma on the antecedents, experiences, and consequences stages of AIDS volunteerism. Coordinated cross-sectional and longitudinal field studies and laboratory analogs are reviewed and reveal that volunteers and nonvolunteers consider AIDS volunteerism more stigmatizing than other forms of volunteerism. Potential stigmatization also prevented nonvolunteers from helping an AIDS organization, whereas reports of actual stigmatization predicted… 
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TLDR
Quasi-deductive content analysis revealed consonance with Western and Northern conceptualisations of AIDS stigma wherein stigma is enacted upon marginalized populations and reinforced through psycho-sociological processes comparing 'in' and 'out' groups.
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Results of a survey of persons associated with HIV/AIDS education, health care, and social service delivery in the Eastern Caribbean are described and reliable constructs were observed for warmth towards PLHA, comfort in association with them, tendencies to distance from or condemn them, beliefs in viral transmission myths, and perceived capacity to counsel effectively.
Volunteer stereotypes, stigma, and relational identity projects
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to seek to enhance the understanding of non-profit marketing and consumer identities by exploring volunteering as a form of symbolic consumption. Specifically,
Measuring HIV-related Stigma Among Chinese Service Providers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of a Multidimensional Scale
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