Pump Up the Volume: Could Excessive Neural Gain Explain Tinnitus and Hyperacusis?

  title={Pump Up the Volume: Could Excessive Neural Gain Explain Tinnitus and Hyperacusis?},
  author={Hannah Brotherton and Christopher J. Plack and Michael R. D. Maslin and Roland Schaette and Kevin James Munro},
  journal={Audiology and Neurotology},
  pages={273 - 282}
Naturally occurring stimuli can vary over several orders of magnitude and may exceed the dynamic range of sensory neurons. As a result, sensory systems adapt their sensitivity by changing their responsiveness or ‘gain'. While many peripheral adaptation processes are rapid, slow adaptation processes have been observed in response to sensory deprivation or elevated stimulation. This adaptation process alters neural gain in order to adjust the basic operating point of sensory processing. In the… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

A review of auditory gain, low-level noise and sound therapy for tinnitus and hyperacusis

The available literature from basic science studies supports the neural gain model of tinnitus and hyperacusis, which conceivably should be effectively managed with sound therapy, but well-controlled clinical trials are needed before conclusions can be made on the effectiveness of sound therapy.

Tinnitus and Auditory Perception After a History of Noise Exposure: Relationship to Auditory Brainstem Response Measures

Reduced ABR wave I amplitude was associated with an increased risk of tinnitus, even after adjusting for DPOAEs and sex, which suggests that changes in peripheral input at the level of the inner hair cell or auditory nerve may lead to increases in central gain that give rise to the perception ofTinnitus.

Decreased Speech-In-Noise Understanding in Young Adults with Tinnitus

Differences in audiological characteristics between noise-exposed adolescents with and without NIT did not differ regarding audiometry, OAE, and ABR, however, tinnitus patients showed decreased speech-in-noise reception.

Excitatory Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Prefrontal Cortex in a Guinea Pig Model Ameliorates Tinnitus

The results support the involvement of PFC in tinnitus modulation, and the therapeutic benefit of rTMS on PFC, but indicate this is not achieved solely by suppression of thalamic hyperactivity.



An integrative model of tinnitus based on a central gain controlling neural sensitivity

  • A. Norena
  • Medicine
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 2011

Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage, address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis.

Computational models of neurophysiological correlates of tinnitus

The computational models for the generation of neurophysiological correlates of tinnitus that have been proposed so far are reviewed, and predictions and compare them to available data are evaluated and the limits of their explanatory power are assessed.

Auditory sensori-neural alterations induced by salicylate

Development of tinnitus‐related neuronal hyperactivity through homeostatic plasticity after hearing loss: a computational model

A computational model of auditory nerve fibers and downstream auditory neurons is used to predict how appropriate additional acoustic stimulation can reverse the development of hyperactivity, which could provide a new basis for treatment strategies.

Neural activity underlying tinnitus generation: Results from PET and fMRI

Tinnitus with a Normal Audiogram: Physiological Evidence for Hidden Hearing Loss and Computational Model

It is reported that in human subjects with tinnitus and a normal audiogram, auditory brainstem responses show a significantly reduced amplitude of the wave I potential but normal amplitudes of the more centrally generated wave V.

Tuning Out the Noise: Limbic-Auditory Interactions in Tinnitus

Tinnitus, diminished sound-level tolerance, and elevated auditory activity in humans with clinically normal hearing sensitivity.

The data strengthen, at a mechanistic level, analogies drawn previously between tinnitus/hyperacusis and other, nonauditory disordered perceptions thought to arise from neural hyperactivity such as chronic neuropathic pain and photophobia.