Pulsed origination and extinction in the marine realm

  title={Pulsed origination and extinction in the marine realm},
  author={Michael Foote},
  • M. Foote
  • Published in Paleobiology 21 December 2005
  • Environmental Science
Abstract The pattern of variation in taxonomic turnover on short timescales is expected to leave detectable signals even when taxonomic data are compiled at coarser timescales. Global, stage-level data on first and last appearances of marine animal genera are analyzed to determine whether it is more likely that origination and extinction were spread throughout stages or that they were concentrated at a single episode per stage. The analysis takes incomplete and variable sampling of… 

Genus extinction, origination, and the durations of sedimentary hiatuses

  • S. Peters
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2006
Abstract Short-term variations in rates of taxonomic extinction and origination in the fossil record may be the result of true changes in rates of turnover, variable rates of fossil preservation, or

Dynamics of origination and extinction in the marine fossil record

  • J. Alroy
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2008
The discipline-wide effort to database the fossil record at the occurrence level has made it possible to estimate marine invertebrate extinction and origination rates with much greater accuracy. The

Geologic constraints on the macroevolutionary history of marine animals.

  • S. Peters
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
This work compares the rates of expansion and truncation of preserved marine sedimentary basins to rates of origination and extinction among Phanerozoic marine animal genera and suggests that the processes responsible for producing variability in the sedimentary rock record, such as plate tectonics and sea-level change, may have been dominant and consistent macroevolutionary forces throughout the Phanrozoic.

Extinction and quiescence in marine animal genera

  • M. Foote
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2007
Independent support for this alternative view comes from analysis of genus occurrence data in the Paleobiology Database, which agrees with previous estimates of sampling probability and implies that offsets between extinction and last appearance of one or more stages are quite probable.

Mass extinctions and macroevolution

The detection of general survivorship rules—including the disappearance of many patterns evident during background times—demonstrates that studies of mass extinctions and recovery can contribute substantially to evolutionary theory, and many intriguing issues remain.

Marine diversity through the Phanerozoic: problems and prospects

  • A. Smith
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Journal of the Geological Society
  • 2007
The fossil record provides direct evidence of how diversity has changed over time, but cannot be taken at face value. Diversity curves constructed from counting taxa in the rock record are seriously

Phanerozoic marine biodiversity dynamics in light of the incompleteness of the fossil record.

It is found that in general the biosphere's response to perturbation is immediate geologically and usually short-lived, and changes in origination and extinction do not persist for longer than one interval, except that elevated origination rates immediately after extinction may last for more than a single interval.

A sampling-adjusted macroevolutionary history for Ordovician–Early Silurian crinoids

A comprehensive, list-based compilation of taxonomically and stratigraphically vetted global crinoid genus occurrences is used to evaluate and correct for the effects of variable and incomplete sampling from the Ordovician through Early Silurian and finds support for several important revisions to the macroevolutionary history of crinoids.

Considering the Case for Biodiversity Cycles: Re-Examining the Evidence for Periodicity in the Fossil Record

The signal is robust against variations in methods of analysis, and is based on fluctuations in the Paleozoic and a substantial part of the Mesozoic.

The ark was full! Constant to declining Cenozoic shallow marine biodiversity on an isolated midlatitude continent

Abstract In recent years several authors have questioned the reality of a widely accepted and apparently large increase in marine biodiversity through the Cenozoic. Here we use collection-level



Origination and Extinction through the Phanerozoic: A New Approach

  • M. Foote
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    The Journal of Geology
  • 2003
Observed first and last appearances of marine animal and microfossil genera in a way that explicitly takes incompleteness and its variation into consideration allows estimates of true rates of origination and extinction throughout the Phanerozoic.

Life in the last few million years

Abstract The excellent fossil record of the past few million years, combined with the overwhelming similarity of the biota to extant species, provides an outstanding opportunity for understanding

Inferring temporal patterns of preservation, origination, and extinction from taxonomic survivorship analysis

  • M. Foote
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2001
An approach that can undo distortions and thus permit estimates of true taxonomic rates, while providing estimates of preservation in the process is presented, and preliminary application to data on Paleozoic marine animals suggests that some features of the apparent record can be detected and corrected.

Asymmetrical patterns of origination and extinction in higher taxa.

Analysis of Sepkoski's compendium of fossil marine families shows that declining pace of origination is an important controlling factor in long term taxic evolution, and confirms Van Valen's (1985a) suggestion that extinction behaves largely as a stationary process.

Determinants of extinction in the fossil record

A new compilation of the amount of exposed marine sedimentary rock is used to predict how the observed fossil record of extinction would appear if the time series of true extinction rates were in fact smooth, and supports the hypothesis that much of the observed short-term volatility in extinction rates is an artefact of variability in the stratigraphic record.

Mass extinctions and sea-level changes

  • A. Hallam
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 1999

Rates of speciation in the fossil record.

  • J. Sepkoski
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1998
Pulses of speciation appear sometimes to be associated with climate change, although moderate oscillations of climate do not necessarily promote speciation despite forcing changes in species' geographical ranges.

Molluscan extinction patterns across the Cenomanian-Turonian stage boundary in the western interior of the United States

High-resolution stratigraphic analysis of 18 sections spanning the Cenomanian–Turonian Stage boundary in the western interior of the United States has allowed determination of the magnitude and

Patterns of generic extinction in the fossil record.

Analysis of the stratigraphic records of 19,897 fossil genera indicates that most classes and orders show largely congruent rises and falls in extinction intensity throughout the Phanerozoic. Even an