The mechanism that causes neutrophils to sequester in the pulmonary circulation is unknown. Because the CD11/CD18 glycoprotein family on the surface membrane of neutrophils participates in many adhesive interactions with the endothelium, we investigated the role of these proteins in the intravascular sequestration of pulmonary neutrophils. Neutrophils were isolated from normal dogs and from the only living dog known to have leukocyte adhesion deficiency disease, an inherited deficiency of the CD11/CD18 adhesion family. The neutrophils were labeled with fluorescein dye, injected into normal recipient dogs, and their passage through the pulmonary microcirculation was recorded by in vivo videofluorescence microscopy through a transparent thoracic window. Transit times for normal and deficient neutrophils were similar over a wide range of hemo-dynamic conditions. Activation by zymosan-activated plasma, which increases the surface membrane expression of CD11/CD18, prolonged the transit of normal neutrophils but did not alter the transit time of the deficient neutrophils. These results indicate that neutrophil CD11/CD18 adhesion-promoting glycoproteins are not involved in the normal pulmonary sequestration of neutrophils but have a significant role in the arrest of activated neutrophils in the pulmonary capillaries.